What is kamagra 100

Buy chewable kamagra

This author has published on various medical topics and is buy chewable kamagra obviously on several lists as a potential reviewer for papers on subjects of which he has only what do i need to buy kamagra slight detailed knowledge. There appears to be no definition of, or qualifications for, a peer reviewer other than that he or she is, rightly or wrongly, perceived to be an expert in a particular field.About a million research papers are published each year and researchers are pressurised to publish because grants, enhanced reputations and rewards may follow (perhaps including a Nobel prize). Peer review is buy chewable kamagra one way for reputable journals to promote good science.

But there are numerous problems as outlined by Richard Smith, a previous editor of the British Medical Journal.1Peer reviewers are usually busy people and often provide their opinions without charge. Journal editors, unless they reject submission independently, must choose and trust that reviewers are up to date especially concerning potentially important recent developments.For the purposes of this account, a differentiation is made between research studies and research trials. Studies are solely observational and replications are unusual buy chewable kamagra because surrounding circumstances often change with the passage of time.

In contrast, trials are interventional. Trials should address predefined specific questions and the methods used should contain sufficient information to allow buy chewable kamagra exact replication. Replication of trials is problematic because of the expenses involved and details of the exact methods used in the original trial may not be comprehensive.

Double-blind randomised placebo-controlled research trials are said to be gold standard, but comparative trials are more important. The former only buy chewable kamagra suggests that treatments given were more effective than placebo. Reviewers need to know is whether treatments are better than a known effective treatment.Traditionally studies and trials comprise titles, abstracts, introduction, methods, results, discussion, conclusions and references.Reviewers should ensure that …AbstractAt the beginning of 2020, the outbreak of erectile dysfunction treatment in China has brought great impact on the society, economy and life.

This article introduces current status of Chinese postgraduate medical students under this epidemic situation in combination with the buy chewable kamagra author's own experience from four aspects. Professional spirit, professional knowledge, learning status and protective measures.IntroductionA novel erectile dysfunction has been discovered and confirmed since the first case of unidentified pneumonia was confirmed in Wuhan, China, in December 2019.1 2 The disease caused by this novel kamagra was officially named erectile dysfunction treatment by the WHO on 12 January 2020. Since the outbreak in China, the numbers of confirmed cases and deaths have rapidly increased.

erectile dysfunction treatment has been clarified as a grade buy chewable kamagra B infectious disease, others of which include severe acute respiratory syndrome and highly pathogenic avian influenza, and is treated according to the protocol for grade A infectious diseases. erectile dysfunction treatment is the seventh known erectile dysfunction-induced disease that involves of the respiratory system in human beings. The other two buy chewable kamagra potentially life-threatening erectile dysfunction-induced diseases are severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome.3 4 This novel erectile dysfunction-induced pneumonia is transmitted from person to person and is highly infectious, with high susceptibility among the general population.

The erectile dysfunction responsible for erectile dysfunction treatment has a long incubation period and diverse clinical features, seriously impacting normal work and life throughout the country. As of 13 April 2020, erectile dysfunction treatment had been recognised in over 200 countries, with a total of 1 784 364 laboratory-confirmed cases and 111 832 deaths, and these numbers have since continued to rise.On 23 January 2020, the Chinese government immediately blocked the city of Wuhan and cut off all outside contact to stop the spread of erectile dysfunction treatment. Other cities successively announced buy chewable kamagra closure of public places and restricted the flow of people.

At the time of this writing, the Chinese Ministry of Education had stated that no student was allowed to return to school until further notification. Some postgraduate buy chewable kamagra medical students residing at school were isolated in safe places. Some others who had returned home for holiday were restricted to their local residence and prohibited to return to the hospital or medical school for studies or clinical work.

We herein describe the status and situation of postgraduate medical students in China under the influence of erectile dysfunction treatment.Encouragement and promotion of the professional spirit of postgraduate medical studentsAt the frontline of the fight against erectile dysfunction treatment, many medical staff members around the country have devoted their full power without hesitation while ignoring their own personal safety. Their teachers, colleagues buy chewable kamagra and friends have also participated in this battle. Such behaviour demonstrates the humanitarian nature of medicine, which involves healing the wounded and rescuing the dying.

This vivid lesson helps medical students to internalise medical ethical buy chewable kamagra principles through emotional penetration and thus deepens their understanding and strengthens their beliefs. It benefits society to cultivate a spirit of benevolence among medical students and to train postgraduate medical students to engage in positive behaviour. In recent years, the position of the medical humanities in medical education has gradually improved.

The combination of medical humanities and medical knowledge is regarded as a successful medical education, which manifests scientific and human buy chewable kamagra brilliance. Such education could help medical students to realise the transformation from medical ethical cognition to medical ethical behaviour in their future career.Use of professional knowledge to assist othersMedical students can help their relatives and friends to recognise the symptoms of pneumonia early according to their professional knowledge. The diagnosis of erectile dysfunction treatment is based on a combination of epidemiological information, clinical symptoms, CT imaging findings and laboratory tests according to the standards of buy chewable kamagra either the WHO or the National Health Commission of China.

Although medical students were not in the hospital and had no access to CT or test kits, they generally have a higher level of professional judgement than people in the general population with respect to medical knowledge and patients’ symptoms. For example, if a person within a medical student’s neighbourhood develops a fever and cough and has a travel history from Wuhan, the student can advise him or her to go to the hospital in a timely manner. Postgraduate medical students can also educate the people around them, which helps the public to realise the importance buy chewable kamagra of prevention and comply with regulations formulated by the country.

Medical students can also serve as volunteers within the community and use their professional knowledge to make more contributions to community residents.Non-stop learning despite suspension of classesThe sudden outbreak of this novel erectile dysfunction disrupted normal teaching and studying in the field of medical education. Non-stop learning via online teaching despite suspension of classes was put forward by the ministry of buy chewable kamagra education. During the disease outbreak, online lectures and learning tutorials were adopted to avoid unnecessary aggregation of people and the associated risk of .5 Basic medical courses such as physiology, pathology and biology are relatively easy to study by video or electronic books.

However, clinical medicine courses such as surgery are not suitable for online study. Because medicine is buy chewable kamagra a practical science, it cannot break away from clinics and patients, and even simulation training cannot achieve a real-world effect. Many universities lack the ability to use the computers or software required to conduct online teaching courses, record teaching videos and prepare teaching documents such as text, picture, audio and animation.

Students living in rural areas with underdeveloped networks and poor hardware facilities may find it difficult to meet the requirements of online learning. During this special period in China, self-study has become an important skill for medical students buy chewable kamagra. Students of different majors have different learning styles.

Dermatology students can review photographs of buy chewable kamagra lesions to improve their skills in differential diagnosis. Internal medicine students can analyse complex cases to exercise their logical ability. Surgery students can learn more about internal medicine to become more comprehensive surgeons.

Additionally, online learning allows students to restart long-forgotten projects, modify research papers and buy chewable kamagra complete unfinished work. They can also review the literature in a field of interest, create an outline of future research and contemplate their career plan. All doctors in China buy chewable kamagra are willing to apply for assistance from the National Natural Science Foundation of China, a famous and widely used research fund.

Online application usually starts in March every year, but in 2020, it was postponed until April because of the epidemic. This gave medical students more time to carefully prepare for their application under the guidance of a mentor.Effective measures to ensure the health of medical studentsAlthough the medical resources of the whole country are devoted to treatment of all patients infected with the novel erectile dysfunction, the schools and government still make special efforts to protect the health of students. Peking Union Medical College has developed an online system called SARISenor, which is used by medical students to report the body temperature and buy chewable kamagra physical condition every day.

This system also has a locating function based on the global positioning system, which is convenient for localised management. Our medical school also developed a course to increase knowledge of erectile dysfunction treatment, buy chewable kamagra and all students are required to study this course online. A test is administered after completion of the course, and students must complete the test to obtain a certificate and show the certificate to the school.

This compulsory measure improves students’ awareness of the novel erectile dysfunction and strengthens their ability to prevent erectile dysfunction treatment. With respect to psychological health, medical students are easily affected by disease-associated fear and pressure, and schools should be prepared to provide psychological services buy chewable kamagra to those who need them.6 Students can also consult psychologists from university-affiliated hospitals who are online 24 hours a day. The Chinese government provides students with a wide coverage of kamagra protection education that has shown good results to date.

The government also provides corresponding psychological buy chewable kamagra counselling services. Specifically, China has1 stopped centralised classroom teaching,2 carried out antiepidemic knowledge training,3 encouraged the wearing of masks and4 paid attention to hand hygiene. These measures are worthy of implementation in foreign countries as well.

Conversely, European countries have encouraged medical students to graduate early so that they may work to help fight erectile dysfunction treatment, which is worthy of implementation in China.We cannot buy chewable kamagra neglect the adverse effects of erectile dysfunction treatment on Chinese scientific research. Fundamental experiments, scientific conferences, funding applications and other activities have been postponed or suspended because of the kamagra situation, which has caused a huge loss in scientific research in China. Specifically, pharmaceutical companies are lacking essential buy chewable kamagra drugs because of shutdowns.

Scientific researchers are out of work because of the closures of laboratories. And students are unable to attain their academic degrees because of the suspension of research. However, the damage to science is insignificant compared with the level of human suffering buy chewable kamagra.

Notably, 5G wireless communication technology, artificial intelligence and cloud computing have played effective roles in prevention and monitoring during this epidemic emergency. Additionally, because of the lack of specific drugs and treatments, traditional Chinese medicine has been adopted as a part of clinical buy chewable kamagra therapy.Thanks to the leadership of the government and the efforts of many medical workers, the effect of erectile dysfunction treatment control in China has been remarkable. The Chinese Ministry of Education recently announced that senior medical students can return to universities in advance if circumstances permit.

Doctors and postgraduate medical students are also glad to return to their clinical work and make their own contributions to the health of the people. With increased knowledge of the viral features, epidemiological characteristics, clinical symptoms and antikamagra theory, efficient strategies have been taken to prevent, control and stop the spread of erectile dysfunction treatment buy chewable kamagra. During the current erectile dysfunction treatment kamagra, which is a worldwide war, everyone is a fighter.

Under the close unity of all countries worldwide and with active participation of the world population, we believe that the prevention and control of erectile dysfunction treatment will be finally achieved.AcknowledgmentsWe thank the leaders and teachers from PUMC&CAMS for their help in processing this article..

What is kamagra 100

Kamagra
Tadalista professional
Suhagra
Penegra
Cialis soft tabs
Can you overdose
Online
No
Yes
No
Yes
Possible side effects
15h
6h
19h
19h
21h
Free samples
At walgreens
At cvs
Drugstore on the corner
At cvs
RX pharmacy
Where to get
No
No
You need consultation
Yes
Yes
Daily dosage
Online
Online
No
Online
Online
Best place to buy
At cvs
Nearby pharmacy
Online Drugstore
Drugstore on the corner
RX pharmacy
Buy with echeck
No
No
No
Online
No

Start Preamble what is kamagra 100 Notice of Amendment and Republished Declaration. The Secretary issues this amendment pursuant to section 319F-3 of the Public Health Service Act to amend his March 10, 2020 Declaration Under the Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act for Medical Countermeasures Against erectile dysfunction treatment. The amendments to the Declaration are applicable as of February 4, 2020, except what is kamagra 100 as otherwise specified in Section XII. Start Further Info Robert P. Kadlec, MD, MTM&H, MS, Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Office of the Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services, 200 Independence Avenue Start Printed Page 79191SW, Washington, DC 20201.

Telephone. 202-205-2882. End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information The Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness (PREP) Act, 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d et. Seq., authorizes the Secretary of Health and Human Services (the Secretary) to issue a declaration to provide liability protections to certain individuals and entities (Covered Persons) against any claim of loss caused by, arising out of, relating to, or resulting from, the manufacture, distribution, administration, or use of certain medical countermeasures (Covered Countermeasures), except for claims involving “willful misconduct,” as defined in the PREP Act.

Such declarations are subject to amendment as circumstances warrant. The PREP Act was enacted on December 30, 2005, as Public Law 109-148, Division C, Section 2. It amended the Public Health Service (PHS) Act, adding Section 319F-3, which addresses liability immunity, and Section 319F-4, which creates a compensation program. These sections are codified at 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d and 42 U.S.C.

247d-6e, respectively. Section 319F-3 of the PHS Act has been amended by the kamagra and All-Hazards Preparedness Reauthorization Act (PAHPRA), Public Law 113-5, enacted on March 13, 2013, and the erectile dysfunction Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act, Public Law 116-136, enacted on March 27, 2020, to expand Covered Countermeasures under the PREP Act. On January 31, 2020, the Secretary declared a public health emergency pursuant to section 319 of the PHS Act, 42 U.S.C. 247d, effective January 27, 2020, for the entire United States to aid in the response to the erectile dysfunction Disease 2019 (erectile dysfunction treatment) outbreak, which subsequently became a global kamagra. Pursuant to section 319 of the PHS Act, the Secretary renewed that declaration on April 21, 2020, July 23, 2020, and October 2, 2020.

On March 10, 2020, the Secretary issued a declaration under the PREP Act for medical countermeasures against erectile dysfunction treatment.[] On April 10, the Secretary amended the Declaration to extend liability protections to Covered Countermeasures authorized under the CARES Act.[] On June 4, the Secretary amended the Declaration to clarify that Covered Countermeasures under the Declaration include qualified kamagra and epidemic products that limit the harm that erectile dysfunction treatment might otherwise cause.[] On August 19, the Secretary amended the Declaration to add additional categories of Qualified Persons and to amend the category of disease, health condition, or threat for which he recommends the administration or use of Covered Countermeasures.[] The Secretary now further amends the Declaration pursuant to section 319F-3 of the Public Health Service Act. This Fourth Amendment to the Declaration. (a) Clarifies that the Declaration must be construed in accordance with the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office of the General Counsel (OGC) Advisory Opinions on the Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act and the Declaration (Advisory Opinions).[] The Declaration incorporates the Advisory Opinions for that purpose. (b) Incorporates authorizations that the HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health (OASH) has issued as an Authority Having Jurisdiction.[] (c) Adds an additional category of Qualified Persons under Section V of the Declaration and 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(i)(8)(B), i.e., healthcare personnel using telehealth to order or administer Covered Countermeasures for patients in a state other than the state where the healthcare personnel are permitted to practice.[] (d) Modifies and clarifies the training requirements for certain licensed pharmacists and pharmacy interns to administer certain routine childhood or erectile dysfunction treatment vaccinations.

(e) Makes explicit that Section VI covers all qualified kamagra and epidemic products under the PREP Act. (f) Adds a third method of distribution under Section VII of the Declaration and 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(a)(5) that would provide liability protections for, among other things, additional private-distribution channels. (g) Makes explicit in Section IX that there can be situations where not administering a covered countermeasure to a particular individual can fall within the PREP Act and this Declaration's liability protections. (h) Makes explicit in Section XI that there are substantial federal legal and policy issues, and substantial federal legal and policy interests, in having a unified, whole-of-nation response to the erectile dysfunction treatment kamagra among federal, state, local, and private-sector entities.

The world is facing an unprecedented kamagra. To effectively respond, there must be a more consistent pathway for Covered Persons to manufacture, distribute, administer or use Covered Countermeasures across the nation and the world.Start Printed Page 79192 (i) Revises the effective time period of the Declaration in light of the amendments to the Declaration.[] The Secretary republishes the Declaration, as amended, in full. Unless otherwise noted, all statutory citations are to the U.S. Code. Description of This Amendment Declaration The Declaration has fifteen sections describing PREP Act coverage for medical countermeasures against erectile dysfunction treatment.

OGC has issued Advisory Opinions interpreting the PREP Act and reflecting the Secretary's interpretation of the Declaration.[] The Secretary now amends the Declaration to clarify that the Declaration must be construed in accordance with the Advisory Opinions. The Secretary expressly incorporates the Advisory Opinions for that purpose. Section V. Covered Persons Section V of the Declaration describes Covered Persons, including additional qualified persons identified by the Secretary, as required under the PREP Act. The Secretary amends Section V to specify an additional category of qualified persons.

Specifically, healthcare personnel who are permitted to order and administer a Covered Countermeasure through telehealth in a state may do so for patients in another state so long as the healthcare personnel comply with the legal requirements of the state in which the healthcare personnel are permitted to order and administer the Covered Countermeasure by means of telehealth. Telehealth is widely recognized as a valuable tool to promote public health during this kamagra. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Telehealth services can facilitate public health mitigation strategies during this kamagra by increasing social distancing. These services can be a safer option for [healthcare personnel (HCP)] and patients by reducing potential infectious exposures. They can reduce the strain on healthcare systems by minimizing the surge of patient demand on facilities and reduce the use of [personal protective equipment (PPE)] by healthcare providers.

Maintaining continuity of care to the extent possible can avoid additional negative consequences from delayed preventive, chronic, or routine care. Remote access to healthcare services may increase participation for those who are medically or socially vulnerable or who do not have ready access to providers. Remote access can also help preserve the patient-provider relationship at times when an in-person visit is not practical or feasible. Telehealth services can be used to. Screen patients who may have symptoms of erectile dysfunction treatment and refer as appropriate Provide low-risk urgent care for non-erectile dysfunction treatment conditions, identify those persons who may need additional medical consultation or assessment, and refer as appropriate Access primary care providers and specialists, including mental and behavioral health, for chronic health conditions and medication management Provide coaching and support for patients managing chronic health conditions, including weight management and nutrition counseling Participate in physical therapy, occupational therapy, and other modalities as a hybrid approach to in-person care for optimal health Monitor clinical signs of certain chronic medical conditions (e.g., blood pressure, blood glucose, other remote assessments) Engage in case management for patients who have difficulty accessing care (e.g., those who live in very rural settings, older adults, those with limited mobility) Follow up with patients after hospitalization Deliver advance care planning and counseling to patients and caregivers to document preferences if a life-threatening event or medical crisis occurs Provide non-emergent care to residents in long-term care facilities Provide education and training for HCP through peer-to-peer professional medical consultations (inpatient or outpatient) that are not locally available, particularly in rural areas.[] Similarly, CMS has stressed the importance of telehealth during this kamagra.

Telehealth, telemedicine, and related terms generally refer to the exchange of medical information from one site to another through electronic communication to improve a patient's health. Innovative uses of this kind of technology in the provision of healthcare is increasing. And with the emergence of the kamagra causing the disease erectile dysfunction treatment, there is an urgency to expand the use of technology to help people who need routine care, and keep vulnerable beneficiaries and beneficiaries with mild symptoms in their homes while maintaining access to the care they need. Limiting community spread of the kamagra, as well as limiting the exposure to other patients and staff members will slow viral spread.[] Accordingly, CMS and other HHS components has substantially expanded the scope of services paid under Medicare when furnished using telehealth technologies during this kamagra. Other HHS components have also taken steps to expand the use of telehealth during the kamagra.[] Moreover, to expand the use of telehealth during this kamagra, the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) at HHS is exercising enforcement discretion and will not impose penalties for noncompliance with the regulatory requirements under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Rules against covered healthcare providers that serve patients through everyday communications technologies during the erectile dysfunction treatment nationwide public health emergency.[] This exercise of discretion Start Printed Page 79193applies to widely available communications apps, such as FaceTime or Skype, when used in good faith for any telehealth treatment or diagnostic purpose, regardless of whether the telehealth service is directly related to erectile dysfunction treatment.[] Many states have authorized out-of-state healthcare personnel to deliver telehealth services to in-state patients, either generally or in the context of erectile dysfunction treatment.[] To help maximize the utility of telehealth, the Secretary declares that the term “qualified person” under 42 U.S.C.

247d-6d(i)(8)(B) includes healthcare personnel using telehealth to order or administer Covered Countermeasures for patients in a state other than the state where the healthcare personnel are permitted to practice. When ordering and administering Covered Countermeasures through telehealth to patients in a state where the healthcare personnel are not already permitted to do so, the healthcare personnel must comply with all requirements for ordering and administering Covered Countermeasures to patients through telehealth in the state where the healthcare personnel are licensed or otherwise permitted to practice. Any state law that prohibits or effectively prohibits such a qualified person from ordering and administering Covered Countermeasures through telehealth is preempted.[] Nothing in this Declaration shall preempt state laws that permit additional persons to deliver telehealth services. The Secretary also amends Section V to include several examples of Covered Persons who are Qualified Persons, because they are authorized in accordance with the public health and medical emergency response of the Authority Having Jurisdiction to prescribe, administer, deliver, distribute or dispense the Covered Countermeasures. Those examples include certain pharmacists, pharmacy interns, and pharmacy technicians who order or administer certain erectile dysfunction treatment tests and certain treatments.[] These examples are not an exclusive or exhaustive list of persons who are qualified persons identified by the Secretary in Section V.

The Secretary also amends Section V to make explicit that the requirement in that section for certain qualified persons to have a current certificate in basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation is satisfied by, among other things, a certification in basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation by an online program that has received accreditation from the American Nurses Credentialing Center, the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), or the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education. The Secretary also amends Section V's training requirements for licensed pharmacists to order and administer certain childhood or erectile dysfunction treatments. To order and administer treatments, the licensed pharmacist must have completed the immunization training that the licensing State requires in order for pharmacists to administer treatments. If the State does not specify training requirements for the licensed pharmacist to order and administer treatments, the licensed pharmacist must complete a vaccination training program of at least 20 hours that is approved by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) to order and administer treatments. This training program must include hands-on injection technique, clinical evaluation of indications and contraindications of treatments, and the recognition and treatment of emergency reactions to treatments.

Other than the basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation requirement and the practical training program requirement, this Amendment does not change the requirements for a pharmacist, pharmacy intern, or pharmacy technician to be a “qualified person” under 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(i)(8)(B) who can order or administer childhood or erectile dysfunction treatments pursuant to the Declaration. Section VI. Covered Countermeasures The Secretary amends Section VI to make explicit that Section VI covers all qualified kamagra and epidemic products under the PREP Act.Start Printed Page 79194 Section VII. Limitations on Distribution The Secretary may specify that liability protections are in effect only for Covered Countermeasures obtained through a particular means of distribution.

The Declaration previously stated that liability immunity is afforded to Covered Persons only for Recommended Activities related to (a) present or future federal contracts, cooperative agreements, grants, other transactions, interagency agreements, or memoranda of understanding or other federal agreements. Or (b) activities authorized in accordance with the public health and medical response of the Authority Having Jurisdiction to prescribe, administer, deliver, distribute, or dispense the Covered Countermeasures following a declaration of an emergency. erectile dysfunction treatment is an unprecedented global challenge that requires a whole-of-nation response that utilizes federal-, state-, and local- distribution channels as well as private-distribution channels. Given the broad scale of this kamagra, the Secretary amends the Declaration to extend PREP Act coverage to additional private-distribution channels, as set forth below. The amended Section VII adds that PREP Act liability protections also extend to Covered Persons for Recommended Activities that are related to any Covered Countermeasure that is.

(a) Licensed, approved, cleared, or authorized by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (or that is permitted to be used under an Investigational New Drug Application or an Investigational Device Exemption) under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD&C) Act or Public Health Service (PHS) Act to treat, diagnose, cure, prevent, mitigate or limit the harm from erectile dysfunction treatment, or the transmission of erectile dysfunction or a kamagra mutating therefrom. Or (b) a respiratory protective device approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under 42 CFR part 84, or any successor regulations, that the Secretary determines to be a priority for use during a public health emergency declared under section 319 of the PHS Act to prevent, mitigate, or limit the harm from, erectile dysfunction treatment, or the transmission of erectile dysfunction or a kamagra mutating therefrom. To qualify for this third distribution channel (but not necessarily to qualify for the other distribution channels), a Covered Person must manufacture, test, develop, distribute, administer, or use the Covered Countermeasure pursuant to the FDA licensure, approval, clearance, or authorization (or pursuant to an Investigational New Drug Application or Investigational Device Exemption), or the NIOSH approval. This third distribution channel may extend PREP Act coverage when there is no federal agreement or authorization in accordance with the public health and medical response of the Authority Having Jurisdiction to prescribe, administer, deliver, distribute or dispense the Covered Countermeasures following a declaration of an emergency. For example, a manufacturer, distributor, program planner, or qualified person engages in manufacturing, testing, development, distribution, administration, or use of a erectile dysfunction treatment test pursuant to an FDA Emergency Use Authorization for that erectile dysfunction treatment test.

If the Covered Person satisfies all other requirements of the PREP Act and Declaration, there will be PREP Act coverage even if there is no federal agreement to cover those activities and those activities are not part of the authorized activity of an Authority Having Jurisdiction. Section IX. Administration of Covered Countermeasures The Secretary amends Section IX to make explicit that there can be situations where not administering a covered countermeasure to a particular individual can fall within the PREP Act and this Declaration's liability protections. Section XI. Geographic Area The Secretary makes explicit in Section XI that there are substantial federal legal and policy issues, and substantial federal legal and policy interests within the meaning of Grable &.

Sons Metal Products, Inc. V. Darue Eng'g. &. Mf'g., 545 U.S.

308 (2005), in having a unified, whole-of-nation response to the erectile dysfunction treatment kamagra among federal, state, local, and private-sector entities. The world is facing an unprecedented global kamagra. To effectively respond, there must be a more consistent pathway for Covered Persons to manufacture, distribute, administer or use Covered Countermeasures across the nation and the world. Thus, there are substantial federal legal and policy issues, and substantial federal legal and policy interests within the meaning of Grable &. Sons Metal Products, Inc.

V. Darue Eng'g. &. Mf'g., 545 U.S. 308 (2005), in having a uniform interpretation of the PREP Act.

Under the PREP Act, the sole exception to the immunity from suit and liability of covered persons is an exclusive Federal cause of action against a Covered Person for death or serious physical injury proximately caused by willful misconduct by such Covered Person. In all other cases, an injured party's exclusive remedy is an administrative remedy under section 319F-4 of the PHS Act. Through the PREP Act, Congress delegated to me the authority to strike the appropriate Federal-state balance with respect to particular Covered Countermeasures through PREP Act declarations. Section XII. Effective Time Period The Secretary amends Section XII to provide that liability protections for all Covered Countermeasures administered and used in accordance with the public health and medical response of the Authority Having Jurisdiction, as identified in Section VII(b) of this Declaration, begins with a “Declaration of Emergency,” as defined in Section VII (except that, with respect to qualified persons who order or administer a routine childhood vaccination that ACIP recommends to persons ages three through 18 according to ACIP's standard immunization schedule, PREP Act coverage began on August 24, 2020), and lasts through (a) the final day the Declaration of Emergency is in effect, or (b) October 1, 2024, whichever occurs first.

This change is to conform the text of the Declaration to the Third Amendment.[] The Secretary also amends Section XII to provide that liability protections for all Covered Countermeasures identified in Section VII(c) of this Declaration begins on the date of this amended Declaration and lasts through (a) the final day the Declaration of Emergency is in effect, or (b) October 1, 2024, whichever occurs first. Because the Secretary is adding Section VII(c) to the Declaration in this Amendment, Section XII provides that Section VII(c) is effective as of the date this amended Declaration is published. Additional Amendments The Secretary also makes other, non-substantive amendments. Declaration, as Amended, for Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act Coverage for Medical Countermeasures Against erectile dysfunction treatment To the extent any term previously in the Declaration, including its amendments, is inconsistent with any provision of this Republished Declaration, the terms of this Republished Declaration are controlling. This Declaration must be construed in accordance with the Advisory Opinions Start Printed Page 79195of the Office of the General Counsel (Advisory Opinions).

I incorporate those Advisory Opinions as part of this Declaration.[] This Declaration is a “requirement” under the PREP Act. I. Determination of Public Health Emergency 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(b)(1) I have determined that the spread of erectile dysfunction or a kamagra mutating therefrom and the resulting disease erectile dysfunction treatment constitutes a public health emergency. I further determine that use of any respiratory protective device approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or any successor regulations, is a priority for use during the public health emergency that I declared on January 31, 2020 under section 319 of the PHS Act for the entire United States to aid in the response of the nation's healthcare community to the erectile dysfunction treatment outbreak.

II. Factors Considered 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(b)(6) I have considered the desirability of encouraging the design, development, clinical testing, or investigation, manufacture, labeling, distribution, formulation, packaging, marketing, promotion, sale, purchase, donation, dispensing, prescribing, administration, licensing, and use of the Covered Countermeasures. III. Recommended Activities 42 U.S.C.

247d-6d(b)(1) I recommend, under the conditions stated in this Declaration, the manufacture, testing, development, distribution, administration, and use of the Covered Countermeasures. IV. Liability Protections 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(a), 247d-6d(b)(1) Liability protections as prescribed in the PREP Act and conditions stated in this Declaration are in effect for the Recommended Activities described in Section III. V.

Covered Persons 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(i)(2), (3), (4), (6), (8)(A) and (B) Covered Persons who are afforded liability protections under this Declaration are “manufacturers,” “distributors,” “program planners,” and “qualified persons,” as those terms are defined in the PREP Act. Their officials, agents, and employees. And the United States. In addition, I have determined that the following additional persons are qualified persons.

(a) Any person authorized in accordance with the public health and medical emergency response of the Authority Having Jurisdiction, as described in Section VII below, to prescribe, administer, deliver, distribute or dispense the Covered Countermeasures, and their officials, agents, employees, contractors and volunteers, following a Declaration of Emergency, as that term is defined in Section VII of this Declaration; [] (b) any person authorized to prescribe, administer, or dispense the Covered Countermeasures or who is otherwise authorized to perform an activity under an Emergency Use Authorization in accordance with Section 564 of the FD&C Act. (c) any person authorized to prescribe, administer, or dispense Covered Countermeasures in accordance with Section 564A of the FD&C Act. (d) a State-licensed pharmacist who orders and administers, and pharmacy interns who administer (if the pharmacy intern acts under the supervision of such pharmacist and the pharmacy intern is licensed or registered by his or her State board of pharmacy), [] (1) treatments that the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends to persons ages three through 18 according to ACIP's standard immunization schedule or (2) FDA-authorized or FDA-licensed erectile dysfunction treatments to persons ages three or older. Such State-licensed pharmacists and the State-licensed or registered interns under their supervision are qualified persons only if the following requirements are met. I.

The treatment must be authorized, approved, or licensed by the FDA. Ii. In the case of a erectile dysfunction treatment, the vaccination must be ordered and administered according to ACIP's erectile dysfunction treatment recommendation(s). Iii. In the case of a childhood treatment, the vaccination must be ordered and administered according to ACIP's standard immunization schedule.

Iv. The licensed pharmacist must have completed the immunization training that the licensing State requires in order for pharmacists to order and administer treatments. If the State does not specify training requirements for the licensed pharmacist to order and administer treatments, the licensed pharmacist must complete a vaccination training program of at least 20 hours that is approved by the Accreditation Start Printed Page 79196Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) to order and administer treatments. Such a training program must include hands-on injection technique, clinical evaluation of indications and contraindications of treatments, and the recognition and treatment of emergency reactions to treatments. V.

The licensed or registered pharmacy intern must complete a practical training program that is approved by the ACPE. This training program must include hands-on injection technique, clinical evaluation of indications and contraindications of treatments, and the recognition and treatment of emergency reactions to treatments. Vi. The licensed pharmacist and licensed or registered pharmacy intern must have a current certificate in basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation; [] vii. The licensed pharmacist must complete a minimum of two hours of ACPE-approved, immunization-related continuing pharmacy education during each State licensing period.

Viii. The licensed pharmacist must comply with recordkeeping and reporting requirements of the jurisdiction in which he or she administers treatments, including informing the patient's primary-care provider when available, submitting the required immunization information to the State or local immunization information system (treatment registry), complying with requirements with respect to reporting adverse events, and complying with requirements whereby the person administering a treatment must review the treatment registry or other vaccination records prior to administering a treatment. And ix. The licensed pharmacist must inform his or her childhood-vaccination patients and the adult caregiver accompanying the child of the importance of a well-child visit with a pediatrician or other licensed primary care provider and refer patients as appropriate. X.

The licensed pharmacist and the licensed or registered pharmacy intern must comply with any applicable requirements (or conditions of use) as set forth in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) erectile dysfunction treatment vaccination provider agreement and any other federal requirements that apply to the administration of erectile dysfunction treatment(s). (e) Healthcare personnel using telehealth to order or administer Covered Countermeasures for patients in a state other than the state where the healthcare personnel are licensed or otherwise permitted to practice. When ordering and administering Covered Countermeasures by means of telehealth to patients in a state where the healthcare personnel are not already permitted to practice, the healthcare personnel must comply with all requirements for ordering and administering Covered Countermeasures to patients by means of telehealth in the state where the healthcare personnel are permitted to practice. Any state law that prohibits or effectively prohibits such a qualified person from ordering and administering Covered Countermeasures by means of telehealth is preempted.[] Nothing in this Declaration shall preempt state laws that permit additional persons to deliver telehealth services. Nothing in this Declaration shall be construed to affect the National treatment Injury Compensation Program, including an injured party's ability to obtain compensation under that program.

Covered Countermeasures that are subject to the National treatment Injury Compensation Program authorized under 42 U.S.C. 300aa-10 et seq. Are covered under this Declaration for the purposes of liability immunity and injury compensation only to the extent that injury compensation is not provided under that Program. All other terms and conditions of the Declaration apply to such Covered Countermeasures. VI.

Covered Countermeasures 42 U.S.C. 247d-6b(c)(1)(B), 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(i)(1) and (7) Covered Countermeasures are. (a) Any antiviral, any drug, any biologic, any diagnostic, any other device, any respiratory protective device, or any treatment manufactured, used, designed, developed, modified, licensed, or procured. I.

To diagnose, mitigate, prevent, treat, or cure erectile dysfunction treatment, or the transmission of erectile dysfunction or a kamagra mutating therefrom. Or ii. To limit the harm that erectile dysfunction treatment, or the transmission of erectile dysfunction or a kamagra mutating therefrom, might otherwise cause. (b) a product manufactured, used, designed, developed, modified, licensed, or procured to diagnose, mitigate, prevent, treat, or cure a serious or life-threatening disease or condition caused by a product described in paragraph (a) above. (c) a product or technology intended to enhance the use or effect of a product described in paragraph (a) or (b) above.

Or (d) any device used in the administration of any such product, and all components and constituent materials of any such product. To be a Covered Countermeasure under the Declaration, a product must also meet 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(i)(1)'s definition of “Covered Countermeasure.” VII. Limitations on Distribution 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(a)(5) and (b)(2)(E) I have determined that liability protections are afforded to Covered Persons only for Recommended Activities involving.

(a) Covered Countermeasures that are related to present or future federal contracts, cooperative agreements, grants, other transactions, interagency agreements, memoranda of understanding, or other federal agreements. (b) Covered Countermeasures that are related to activities authorized in accordance with the public health and medical response of the Authority Having Jurisdiction to prescribe, administer, deliver, distribute or dispense the Covered Countermeasures following a Declaration of Emergency. Or (c) Covered Countermeasures that are. I. Licensed, approved, cleared, or authorized by the FDA (or that are permitted to be used under an Investigational New Drug Application or an Investigational Device Exemption) under the FD&C Act or PHS Act to treat, diagnose, cure, prevent, mitigate, or limit the harm from erectile dysfunction treatment, or the transmission of erectile dysfunction or a kamagra mutating therefrom.

OrStart Printed Page 79197 ii. A respiratory protective device approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or any successor regulations, that the Secretary determines to be a priority for use during a public health emergency declared under section 319 of the PHS Act to prevent, mitigate, or limit the harm from erectile dysfunction treatment, or the transmission of erectile dysfunction or a kamagra mutating therefrom. To qualify for this third distribution channel, a Covered Person must manufacture, test, develop, distribute, administer, or use the Covered Countermeasure pursuant to the FDA licensure, approval, clearance, or authorization (or pursuant to an Investigational New Drug Application or Investigational Device Exemption), or the NIOSH approval. As used in this Declaration, the terms “Authority Having Jurisdiction” and “Declaration of Emergency” have the following meanings. (a) The Authority Having Jurisdiction means the public agency or its delegate that has legal responsibility and authority for responding to an incident, based on political or geographical (e.g., city, county, tribal, state, or federal boundary lines) or functional (e.g., law enforcement, public health) range or sphere of authority.

(b) A Declaration of Emergency means any declaration by any authorized local, regional, state, or federal official of an emergency specific to events that indicate an immediate need to administer and use the Covered Countermeasures, with the exception of a federal declaration in support of an Emergency Use Authorization under Section 564 of the FD&C Act unless such declaration specifies otherwise. I have also determined that, for governmental program planners only, liability protections are afforded only to the extent such program planners obtain Covered Countermeasures through voluntary means, such as (a) donation. (b) commercial sale. (c) deployment of Covered Countermeasures from federal stockpiles. Or (d) deployment of donated, purchased, or otherwise voluntarily obtained Covered Countermeasures from state, local, or private stockpiles.

VIII. Category of Disease, Health Condition, or Threat 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(b)(2)(A) The category of disease, health condition, or threat for which I recommend the administration or use of the Covered Countermeasures is not only erectile dysfunction treatment caused by erectile dysfunction, or a kamagra mutating therefrom, but also other diseases, health conditions, or threats that may have been caused by erectile dysfunction treatment, erectile dysfunction, or a kamagra mutating therefrom, including the decrease in the rate of childhood immunizations, which will lead to an increase in the rate of infectious diseases. IX. Administration of Covered Countermeasures 42 U.S.C.

247d-6d(a)(2)(B) Administration of the Covered Countermeasure means physical provision of the countermeasures to recipients, or activities and decisions directly relating to public and private delivery, distribution and dispensing of the countermeasures to recipients, management and operation of countermeasure programs, or management and operation of locations for the purpose of distributing and dispensing countermeasures. Where there are limited Covered Countermeasures, not administering a Covered Countermeasure to one individual in order to administer it to another individual can constitute “relating to. . . The administration to.

. . An individual” under 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d. For example, consider a situation where there is only one dose [] of a erectile dysfunction treatment, and a person in a vulnerable population and a person in a less vulnerable population both request it from a healthcare professional.

In that situation, the healthcare professional administers the one dose to the person who is more vulnerable to erectile dysfunction treatment. In that circumstance, the failure to administer the erectile dysfunction treatment to the person in a less-vulnerable population “relat[es] to. . . The administration to” the person in a vulnerable population.

The person in the vulnerable population was able to receive the treatment only because it was not administered to the person in the less-vulnerable population. Prioritization or purposeful allocation of a Covered Countermeasure, particularly if done in accordance with a public health authority's directive, can fall within the PREP Act and this Declaration's liability protections. X. Population 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(a)(4), 247d-6d(b)(2)(C) The populations of individuals to whom the liability protections of this Declaration extend include any individual who uses or is administered the Covered Countermeasures in accordance with this Declaration.

Liability protections are afforded to manufacturers and distributors without regard to whether the countermeasure is used by or administered to this population. Liability protections are afforded to program planners and qualified persons when the countermeasure is used by or administered to this population, or the program planner or qualified person reasonably could have believed the recipient was in this population. XI. Geographic Area 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(a)(4), 247d-6d(b)(2)(D) Liability protections are afforded for the administration or use of a Covered Countermeasure without geographic limitation.

Liability protections are afforded to manufacturers and distributors without regard to whether the Covered Countermeasure is used by or administered in any designated geographic area. Liability protections are afforded to program planners and qualified persons when the countermeasure is used by or administered in any designated geographic area, or the program planner or qualified person reasonably could have believed the recipient was in that geographic area. erectile dysfunction treatment is a global challenge that requires a whole-of-nation response. There are substantial federal legal and policy issues, and substantial federal legal and policy interests within the meaning of Grable &. Sons Metal Products, Inc.

V. Darue Eng'g. &. Mf'g., 545 U.S. 308 (2005), in having a unified, whole-of-nation response to the erectile dysfunction treatment kamagra among federal, state, local, and private-sector entities.

The world is facing an unprecedented kamagra. To effectively respond, there must be a more consistent pathway for Covered Persons to manufacture, distribute, administer or use Covered Countermeasures across the nation and the world. Thus, there are substantial federal legal and policy issues, and substantial federal legal and policy interests within the meaning of Grable &. Sons Metal Products, Inc. V.

Darue Eng'g. &. Mf'g., 545 U.S. 308 (2005), in having a uniform interpretation of the PREP Act. Under the PREP Act, the sole exception to the immunity from suit and liability of covered persons under the PREP Act is an exclusive Federal cause of action against a covered person for death or serious physical injury proximately caused by willful misconduct by such covered person.

In all other cases, an injured party's exclusive remedy is an administrative Start Printed Page 79198remedy under section 319F-4 of the PHS Act. Through the PREP Act, Congress delegated to me the authority to strike the appropriate Federal-state balance with respect to particular Covered Countermeasures through PREP Act declarations.[] XII. Effective Time Period 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(b)(2)(B) Liability protections for any respiratory protective device approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or any successor regulations, through the means of distribution identified in Section VII(a) of this Declaration, begin on March 27, 2020 and extend through October 1, 2024. Liability protections for all other Covered Countermeasures identified in Section VI of this Declaration, through means of distribution identified in Section VII(a) of this Declaration, begin on February 4, 2020 and extend through October 1, 2024.

Liability protections for all Covered Countermeasures administered and used in accordance with the public health and medical response of the Authority Having Jurisdiction, as identified in Section VII(b) of this Declaration, begin with a Declaration of Emergency as that term is defined in Section VII (except that, with respect to qualified persons who order or administer a routine childhood vaccination that ACIP recommends to persons ages three through 18 according to ACIP's standard immunization schedule, liability protections began on August 24, 2020), and last through (a) the final day the Declaration of Emergency is in effect, or (b) October 1, 2024, whichever occurs first. Liability protections for all Covered Countermeasures identified in Section VII(c) of this Declaration begin on the date of this amended Declaration and last through (a) the final day the Declaration of Emergency is in effect, or (b) October 1, 2024, whichever occurs first. XIII. Additional Time Period of Coverage 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(b)(3)(B) and (C) I have determined that an additional 12 months of liability protection is reasonable to allow for the manufacturer(s) to arrange for disposition of the Covered Countermeasure, including return of the Covered Countermeasures to the manufacturer, and for Covered Persons to take such other actions as are appropriate to limit the administration or use of the Covered Countermeasures.

Covered Countermeasures obtained for the SNS during the effective period of this Declaration are covered through the date of administration or use pursuant to a distribution or release from the SNS. XIV. Countermeasures Injury Compensation Program 42 U.S.C 247d-6e The PREP Act authorizes the Countermeasures Injury Compensation Program (CICP) to provide benefits to certain individuals or estates of individuals who sustain a covered serious physical injury as the direct result of the administration or use of the Covered Countermeasures, and benefits to certain survivors of individuals who die as a direct result of the administration or use of the Covered Countermeasures. The causal connection between the countermeasure and the serious physical injury must be supported by compelling, reliable, valid, medical and scientific evidence in order for the individual to be considered for compensation. The CICP is administered by the Health Resources and Services Administration, within the Department of Health and Human Services.

Information about the CICP is available at the toll-free number 1-855-266-2427 or http://www.hrsa.gov/​cicp/​. XV. Amendments 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(b)(4) Amendments to this Declaration will be published in the Federal Register, as warranted. Start Authority 42 U.S.C.

247d-6d. End Authority Start Signature Dated. December 3, 2020. Alex M. Azar II, Secretary of Health and Human Services.

End Signature End Supplemental Information [FR Doc. 2020-26977 Filed 12-8-20. 8:45 am]BILLING CODE 4150-37-P.

Start Preamble Notice of Amendment and Republished buy chewable kamagra Declaration. The Secretary issues this amendment pursuant to section 319F-3 of the Public Health Service Act to amend his March 10, 2020 Declaration Under the Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act for Medical Countermeasures Against erectile dysfunction treatment. The amendments to the Declaration are applicable as of February 4, buy chewable kamagra 2020, except as otherwise specified in Section XII.

Start Further Info Robert P. Kadlec, MD, MTM&H, MS, Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Office of the Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services, 200 Independence Avenue Start Printed Page 79191SW, Washington, DC 20201. Telephone.

202-205-2882. End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information The Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness (PREP) Act, 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d et.

Seq., authorizes the Secretary of Health and Human Services (the Secretary) to issue a declaration to provide liability protections to certain individuals and entities (Covered Persons) against any claim of loss caused by, arising out of, relating to, or resulting from, the manufacture, distribution, administration, or use of certain medical countermeasures (Covered Countermeasures), except for claims involving “willful misconduct,” as defined in the PREP Act. Such declarations are subject to amendment as circumstances warrant. The PREP Act was enacted on December 30, 2005, as Public Law 109-148, Division C, Section 2.

It amended the Public Health Service (PHS) Act, adding Section 319F-3, which addresses liability immunity, and Section 319F-4, which creates a compensation program. These sections are codified at 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d and 42 U.S.C.

247d-6e, respectively. Section 319F-3 of the PHS Act has been amended by the kamagra and All-Hazards Preparedness Reauthorization Act (PAHPRA), Public Law 113-5, enacted on March 13, 2013, and the erectile dysfunction Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act, Public Law 116-136, enacted on March 27, 2020, to expand Covered Countermeasures under the PREP Act. On January 31, 2020, the Secretary declared a public health emergency pursuant to section 319 of the PHS Act, 42 U.S.C.

247d, effective January 27, 2020, for the entire United States to aid in the response to the erectile dysfunction Disease 2019 (erectile dysfunction treatment) outbreak, which subsequently became a global kamagra. Pursuant to section 319 of the PHS Act, the Secretary renewed that declaration on April 21, 2020, July 23, 2020, and October 2, 2020. On March 10, 2020, the Secretary issued a declaration under the PREP Act for medical countermeasures against erectile dysfunction treatment.[] On April 10, the Secretary amended the Declaration to extend liability protections to Covered Countermeasures authorized under the CARES Act.[] On June 4, the Secretary amended the Declaration to clarify that Covered Countermeasures under the Declaration include qualified kamagra and epidemic products that limit the harm that erectile dysfunction treatment might otherwise cause.[] On August 19, the Secretary amended the Declaration to add additional categories of Qualified Persons and to amend the category of disease, health condition, or threat for which he recommends the administration or use of Covered Countermeasures.[] The Secretary now further amends the Declaration pursuant to section 319F-3 of the Public Health Service Act.

This Fourth Amendment to the Declaration. (a) Clarifies that the Declaration must be construed in accordance with the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office of the General Counsel (OGC) Advisory Opinions on the Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act and the Declaration (Advisory Opinions).[] The Declaration incorporates the Advisory Opinions for that purpose. (b) Incorporates authorizations that the HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health (OASH) has issued as an Authority Having Jurisdiction.[] (c) Adds an additional category of Qualified Persons under Section V of the Declaration and 42 U.S.C.

247d-6d(i)(8)(B), i.e., healthcare personnel using telehealth to order or administer Covered Countermeasures for patients in a state other than the state where the healthcare personnel are permitted to practice.[] (d) Modifies and clarifies the training requirements for certain licensed pharmacists and pharmacy interns to administer certain routine childhood or erectile dysfunction treatment vaccinations. (e) Makes explicit that Section VI covers all qualified kamagra and epidemic products under the PREP Act. (f) Adds a third method of distribution under Section VII of the Declaration and 42 U.S.C.

247d-6d(a)(5) that would provide liability protections for, among other things, additional private-distribution channels. (g) Makes explicit in Section IX that there can be situations where not administering a covered countermeasure to a particular individual can fall within the PREP Act and this Declaration's liability protections. (h) Makes explicit in Section XI that there are substantial federal legal and policy issues, and substantial federal legal and policy interests, in having a unified, whole-of-nation response to the erectile dysfunction treatment kamagra among federal, state, local, and private-sector entities.

The world is facing an unprecedented kamagra. To effectively respond, there must be a more consistent pathway for Covered Persons to manufacture, distribute, administer or use Covered Countermeasures across the nation and the world.Start Printed Page 79192 (i) Revises the effective time period of the Declaration in light of the amendments to the Declaration.[] The Secretary republishes the Declaration, as amended, in full. Unless otherwise noted, all statutory citations are to the U.S.

Code. Description of This Amendment Declaration The Declaration has fifteen sections describing PREP Act coverage for medical countermeasures against erectile dysfunction treatment. OGC has issued Advisory Opinions interpreting the PREP Act and reflecting the Secretary's interpretation of the Declaration.[] The Secretary now amends the Declaration to clarify that the Declaration must be construed in accordance with the Advisory Opinions.

The Secretary expressly incorporates the Advisory Opinions for that purpose. Section V. Covered Persons Section V of the Declaration describes Covered Persons, including additional qualified persons identified by the Secretary, as required under the PREP Act.

The Secretary amends Section V to specify an additional category of qualified persons. Specifically, healthcare personnel who are permitted to order and administer a Covered Countermeasure through telehealth in a state may do so for patients in another state so long as the healthcare personnel comply with the legal requirements of the state in which the healthcare personnel are permitted to order and administer the Covered Countermeasure by means of telehealth. Telehealth is widely recognized as a valuable tool to promote public health during this kamagra.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Telehealth services can facilitate public health mitigation strategies during this kamagra by increasing social distancing. These services can be a safer option for [healthcare personnel (HCP)] and patients by reducing potential infectious exposures. They can reduce the strain on healthcare systems by minimizing the surge of patient demand on facilities and reduce the use of [personal protective equipment (PPE)] by healthcare providers.

Maintaining continuity of care to the extent possible can avoid additional negative consequences from delayed preventive, chronic, or routine care. Remote access to healthcare services may increase participation for those who are medically or socially vulnerable or who do not have ready access to providers. Remote access can also help preserve the patient-provider relationship at times when an in-person visit is not practical or feasible.

Telehealth services can be used to. Screen patients who may have symptoms of erectile dysfunction treatment and refer as appropriate Provide low-risk urgent care for non-erectile dysfunction treatment conditions, identify those persons who may need additional medical consultation or assessment, and refer as appropriate Access primary care providers and specialists, including mental and behavioral health, for chronic health conditions and medication management Provide coaching and support for patients managing chronic health conditions, including weight management and nutrition counseling Participate in physical therapy, occupational therapy, and other modalities as a hybrid approach to in-person care for optimal health Monitor clinical signs of certain chronic medical conditions (e.g., blood pressure, blood glucose, other remote assessments) Engage in case management for patients who have difficulty accessing care (e.g., those who live in very rural settings, older adults, those with limited mobility) Follow up with patients after hospitalization Deliver advance care planning and counseling to patients and caregivers to document preferences if a life-threatening event or medical crisis occurs Provide non-emergent care to residents in long-term care facilities Provide education and training for HCP through peer-to-peer professional medical consultations (inpatient or outpatient) that are not locally available, particularly in rural areas.[] Similarly, CMS has stressed the importance of telehealth during this kamagra. Telehealth, telemedicine, and related terms generally refer to the exchange of medical information from one site to another through electronic communication to improve a patient's health.

Innovative uses of this kind of technology in the provision of healthcare is increasing. And with the emergence of the kamagra causing the disease erectile dysfunction treatment, there is an urgency to expand the use of technology to help people who need routine care, and keep vulnerable beneficiaries and beneficiaries with mild symptoms in their homes while maintaining access to the care they need. Limiting community spread of the kamagra, as well as limiting the exposure to other patients and staff members will slow viral spread.[] Accordingly, CMS and other HHS components has substantially expanded the scope of services paid under Medicare when furnished using telehealth technologies during this kamagra.

Other HHS components have also taken steps to expand the use of telehealth during the kamagra.[] Moreover, to expand the use of telehealth during this kamagra, the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) at HHS is exercising enforcement discretion and will not impose penalties for noncompliance with the regulatory requirements under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Rules against covered healthcare providers that serve patients through everyday communications technologies during the erectile dysfunction treatment nationwide public health emergency.[] This exercise of discretion Start Printed Page 79193applies to widely available communications apps, such as FaceTime or Skype, when used in good faith for any telehealth treatment or diagnostic purpose, regardless of whether the telehealth service is directly related to erectile dysfunction treatment.[] Many states have authorized out-of-state healthcare personnel to deliver telehealth services to in-state patients, either generally or in the context of erectile dysfunction treatment.[] To help maximize the utility of telehealth, the Secretary declares that the term “qualified person” under 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(i)(8)(B) includes healthcare personnel using telehealth to order or administer Covered Countermeasures for patients in a state other than the state where the healthcare personnel are permitted to practice. When ordering and administering Covered Countermeasures through telehealth to patients in a state where the healthcare personnel are not already permitted to do so, the healthcare personnel must comply with all requirements for ordering and administering Covered Countermeasures to patients through telehealth in the state where the healthcare personnel are licensed or otherwise permitted to practice.

Any state law that prohibits or effectively prohibits such a qualified person from ordering and administering Covered Countermeasures through telehealth is preempted.[] Nothing in this Declaration shall preempt state laws that permit additional persons to deliver telehealth services. The Secretary also amends Section V to include several examples of Covered Persons who are Qualified Persons, because they are authorized in accordance with the public health and medical emergency response of the Authority Having Jurisdiction to prescribe, administer, deliver, distribute or dispense the Covered Countermeasures. Those examples include certain pharmacists, pharmacy interns, and pharmacy technicians who order or administer certain erectile dysfunction treatment tests and certain treatments.[] These examples are not an exclusive or exhaustive list of persons who are qualified persons identified by the Secretary in Section V.

The Secretary also amends Section V to make explicit that the requirement in that section for certain qualified persons to have a current certificate in basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation is satisfied by, among other things, a certification in basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation by an online program that has received accreditation from the American Nurses Credentialing Center, the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), or the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education. The Secretary also amends Section V's training requirements for licensed pharmacists to order and administer certain childhood or erectile dysfunction treatments. To order and administer treatments, the licensed pharmacist must have completed the immunization training that the licensing State requires in order for pharmacists to administer treatments.

If the State does not specify training requirements for the licensed pharmacist to order and administer treatments, the licensed pharmacist must complete a vaccination training program of at least 20 hours that is approved by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) to order and administer treatments. This training program must include hands-on injection technique, clinical evaluation of indications and contraindications of treatments, and the recognition and treatment of emergency reactions to treatments. Other than the basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation requirement and the practical training program requirement, this Amendment does not change the requirements for a pharmacist, pharmacy intern, or pharmacy technician to be a “qualified person” under 42 U.S.C.

247d-6d(i)(8)(B) who can order or administer childhood or erectile dysfunction treatments pursuant to the Declaration. Section VI. Covered Countermeasures The Secretary amends Section VI to make explicit that Section VI covers all qualified kamagra and epidemic products under the PREP Act.Start Printed Page 79194 Section VII.

Limitations on Distribution The Secretary may specify that liability protections are in effect only for Covered Countermeasures obtained through a particular means of distribution. The Declaration previously stated that liability immunity is afforded to Covered Persons only for Recommended Activities related to (a) present or future federal contracts, cooperative agreements, grants, other transactions, interagency agreements, or memoranda of understanding or other federal agreements. Or (b) activities authorized in accordance with the public health and medical response of the Authority Having Jurisdiction to prescribe, administer, deliver, distribute, or dispense the Covered Countermeasures following a declaration of an emergency.

erectile dysfunction treatment is an unprecedented global challenge that requires a whole-of-nation response that utilizes federal-, state-, and local- distribution channels as well as private-distribution channels. Given the broad scale of this kamagra, the Secretary amends the Declaration to extend PREP Act coverage to additional private-distribution channels, as set forth below. The amended Section VII adds that PREP Act liability protections also extend to Covered Persons for Recommended Activities that are related to any Covered Countermeasure that is.

(a) Licensed, approved, cleared, or authorized by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (or that is permitted to be used under an Investigational New Drug Application or an Investigational Device Exemption) under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD&C) Act or Public Health Service (PHS) Act to treat, diagnose, cure, prevent, mitigate or limit the harm from erectile dysfunction treatment, or the transmission of erectile dysfunction or a kamagra mutating therefrom. Or (b) a respiratory protective device approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under 42 CFR part 84, or any successor regulations, that the Secretary determines to be a priority for use during a public health emergency declared under section 319 of the PHS Act to prevent, mitigate, or limit the harm from, erectile dysfunction treatment, or the transmission of erectile dysfunction or a kamagra mutating therefrom. To qualify for this third distribution channel (but not necessarily to qualify for the other distribution channels), a Covered Person must manufacture, test, develop, distribute, administer, or use the Covered Countermeasure pursuant to the FDA licensure, approval, clearance, or authorization (or pursuant to an Investigational New Drug Application or Investigational Device Exemption), or the NIOSH approval.

This third distribution channel may extend PREP Act coverage when there is no federal agreement or authorization in accordance with the public health and medical response of the Authority Having Jurisdiction to prescribe, administer, deliver, distribute or dispense the Covered Countermeasures following a declaration of an emergency. For example, a manufacturer, distributor, program planner, or qualified person engages in manufacturing, testing, development, distribution, administration, or use of a erectile dysfunction treatment test pursuant to an FDA Emergency Use Authorization for that erectile dysfunction treatment test. If the Covered Person satisfies all other requirements of the PREP Act and Declaration, there will be PREP Act coverage even if there is no federal agreement to cover those activities and those activities are not part of the authorized activity of an Authority Having Jurisdiction.

Section IX. Administration of Covered Countermeasures The Secretary amends Section IX to make explicit that there can be situations where not administering a covered countermeasure to a particular individual can fall within the PREP Act and this Declaration's liability protections. Section XI.

Geographic Area The Secretary makes explicit in Section XI that there are substantial federal legal and policy issues, and substantial federal legal and policy interests within the meaning of Grable &. Sons Metal Products, Inc. V.

308 (2005), in having a unified, whole-of-nation response to the erectile dysfunction treatment kamagra among federal, state, local, and private-sector entities. The world is facing an unprecedented global kamagra. To effectively respond, there must be a more consistent pathway for Covered Persons to manufacture, distribute, administer or use Covered Countermeasures across the nation and the world.

Thus, there are substantial federal legal and policy issues, and substantial federal legal and policy interests within the meaning of Grable &. Sons Metal Products, Inc. V.

308 (2005), in having a uniform interpretation of the PREP Act. Under the PREP Act, the sole exception to the immunity from suit and liability of covered persons is an exclusive Federal cause of action against a Covered Person for death or serious physical injury proximately caused by willful misconduct by such Covered Person. In all other cases, an injured party's exclusive remedy is an administrative remedy under section 319F-4 of the PHS Act.

Through the PREP Act, Congress delegated to me the authority to strike the appropriate Federal-state balance with respect to particular Covered Countermeasures through PREP Act declarations. Section XII. Effective Time Period The Secretary amends Section XII to provide that liability protections for all Covered Countermeasures administered and used in accordance with the public health and medical response of the Authority Having Jurisdiction, as identified in Section VII(b) of this Declaration, begins with a “Declaration of Emergency,” as defined in Section VII (except that, with respect to qualified persons who order or administer a routine childhood vaccination that ACIP recommends to persons ages three through 18 according to ACIP's standard immunization schedule, PREP Act coverage began on August 24, 2020), and lasts through (a) the final day the Declaration of Emergency is in effect, or (b) October 1, 2024, whichever occurs first.

This change is to conform the text of the Declaration to the Third Amendment.[] The Secretary also amends Section XII to provide that liability protections for all Covered Countermeasures identified in Section VII(c) of this Declaration begins on the date of this amended Declaration and lasts through (a) the final day the Declaration of Emergency is in effect, or (b) October 1, 2024, whichever occurs first. Because the Secretary is adding Section VII(c) to the Declaration in this Amendment, Section XII provides that Section VII(c) is effective as of the date this amended Declaration is published. Additional Amendments The Secretary also makes other, non-substantive amendments.

Declaration, as Amended, for Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act Coverage for Medical Countermeasures Against erectile dysfunction treatment To the extent any term previously in the Declaration, including its amendments, is inconsistent with any provision of this Republished Declaration, the terms of this Republished Declaration are controlling. This Declaration must be construed in accordance with the Advisory Opinions Start Printed Page 79195of the Office of the General Counsel (Advisory Opinions). I incorporate those Advisory Opinions as part of this Declaration.[] This Declaration is a “requirement” under the PREP Act.

I. Determination of Public Health Emergency 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(b)(1) I have determined that the spread of erectile dysfunction or a kamagra mutating therefrom and the resulting disease erectile dysfunction treatment constitutes a public health emergency.

I further determine that use of any respiratory protective device approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or any successor regulations, is a priority for use during the public health emergency that I declared on January 31, 2020 under section 319 of the PHS Act for the entire United States to aid in the response of the nation's healthcare community to the erectile dysfunction treatment outbreak. II. Factors Considered 42 U.S.C.

247d-6d(b)(6) I have considered the desirability of encouraging the design, development, clinical testing, or investigation, manufacture, labeling, distribution, formulation, packaging, marketing, promotion, sale, purchase, donation, dispensing, prescribing, administration, licensing, and use of the Covered Countermeasures. III. Recommended Activities 42 U.S.C.

247d-6d(b)(1) I recommend, under the conditions stated in this Declaration, the manufacture, testing, development, distribution, administration, and use of the Covered Countermeasures. IV. Liability Protections 42 U.S.C.

247d-6d(a), 247d-6d(b)(1) Liability protections as prescribed in the PREP Act and conditions stated in this Declaration are in effect for the Recommended Activities described in Section III. V. Covered Persons 42 U.S.C.

247d-6d(i)(2), (3), (4), (6), (8)(A) and (B) Covered Persons who are afforded liability protections under this Declaration are “manufacturers,” “distributors,” “program planners,” and “qualified persons,” as those terms are defined in the PREP Act. Their officials, agents, and employees. And the United States.

In addition, I have determined that the following additional persons are qualified persons. (a) Any person authorized in accordance with the public health and medical emergency response of the Authority Having Jurisdiction, as described in Section VII below, to prescribe, administer, deliver, distribute or dispense the Covered Countermeasures, and their officials, agents, employees, contractors and volunteers, following a Declaration of Emergency, as that term is defined in Section VII of this Declaration; [] (b) any person authorized to prescribe, administer, or dispense the Covered Countermeasures or who is otherwise authorized to perform an activity under an Emergency Use Authorization in accordance with Section 564 of the FD&C Act. (c) any person authorized to prescribe, administer, or dispense Covered Countermeasures in accordance with Section 564A of the FD&C Act.

(d) a State-licensed pharmacist who orders and administers, and pharmacy interns who administer (if the pharmacy intern acts under the supervision of such pharmacist and the pharmacy intern is licensed or registered by his or her State board of pharmacy), [] (1) treatments that the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends to persons ages three through 18 according to ACIP's standard immunization schedule or (2) FDA-authorized or FDA-licensed erectile dysfunction treatments to persons ages three or older. Such State-licensed pharmacists and the State-licensed or registered interns under their supervision are qualified persons only if the following requirements are met. I.

The treatment must be authorized, approved, or licensed by the FDA. Ii. In the case of a erectile dysfunction treatment, the vaccination must be ordered and administered according to ACIP's erectile dysfunction treatment recommendation(s).

Iii. In the case of a childhood treatment, the vaccination must be ordered and administered according to ACIP's standard immunization schedule. Iv.

The licensed pharmacist must have completed the immunization training that the licensing State requires in order for pharmacists to order and administer treatments. If the State does not specify training requirements for the licensed pharmacist to order and administer treatments, the licensed pharmacist must complete a vaccination training program of at least 20 hours that is approved by the Accreditation Start Printed Page 79196Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) to order and administer treatments. Such a training program must include hands-on injection technique, clinical evaluation of indications and contraindications of treatments, and the recognition and treatment of emergency reactions to treatments.

V. The licensed or registered pharmacy intern must complete a practical training program that is approved by the ACPE. This training program must include hands-on injection technique, clinical evaluation of indications and contraindications of treatments, and the recognition and treatment of emergency reactions to treatments.

Vi. The licensed pharmacist and licensed or registered pharmacy intern must have a current certificate in basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation; [] vii. The licensed pharmacist must complete a minimum of two hours of ACPE-approved, immunization-related continuing pharmacy education during each State licensing period.

Viii. The licensed pharmacist must comply with recordkeeping and reporting requirements of the jurisdiction in which he or she administers treatments, including informing the patient's primary-care provider when available, submitting the required immunization information to the State or local immunization information system (treatment registry), complying with requirements with respect to reporting adverse events, and complying with requirements whereby the person administering a treatment must review the treatment registry or other vaccination records prior to administering a treatment. And ix.

The licensed pharmacist must inform his or her childhood-vaccination patients and the adult caregiver accompanying the child of the importance of a well-child visit with a pediatrician or other licensed primary care provider and refer patients as appropriate. X. The licensed pharmacist and the licensed or registered pharmacy intern must comply with any applicable requirements (or conditions of use) as set forth in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) erectile dysfunction treatment vaccination provider agreement and any other federal requirements that apply to the administration of erectile dysfunction treatment(s).

(e) Healthcare personnel using telehealth to order or administer Covered Countermeasures for patients in a state other than the state where the healthcare personnel are licensed or otherwise permitted to practice. When ordering and administering Covered Countermeasures by means of telehealth to patients in a state where the healthcare personnel are not already permitted to practice, the healthcare personnel must comply with all requirements for ordering and administering Covered Countermeasures to patients by means of telehealth in the state where the healthcare personnel are permitted to practice. Any state law that prohibits or effectively prohibits such a qualified person from ordering and administering Covered Countermeasures by means of telehealth is preempted.[] Nothing in this Declaration shall preempt state laws that permit additional persons to deliver telehealth services.

Nothing in this Declaration shall be construed to affect the National treatment Injury Compensation Program, including an injured party's ability to obtain compensation under that program. Covered Countermeasures that are subject to the National treatment Injury Compensation Program authorized under 42 U.S.C. 300aa-10 et seq.

Are covered under this Declaration for the purposes of liability immunity and injury compensation only to the extent that injury compensation is not provided under that Program. All other terms and conditions of the Declaration apply to such Covered Countermeasures. VI.

Covered Countermeasures 42 U.S.C. 247d-6b(c)(1)(B), 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(i)(1) and (7) Covered Countermeasures are.

(a) Any antiviral, any drug, any biologic, any diagnostic, any other device, any respiratory protective device, or any treatment manufactured, used, designed, developed, modified, licensed, or procured. I. To diagnose, mitigate, prevent, treat, or cure erectile dysfunction treatment, or the transmission of erectile dysfunction or a kamagra mutating therefrom.

Or ii. To limit the harm that erectile dysfunction treatment, or the transmission of erectile dysfunction or a kamagra mutating therefrom, might otherwise cause. (b) a product manufactured, used, designed, developed, modified, licensed, or procured to diagnose, mitigate, prevent, treat, or cure a serious or life-threatening disease or condition caused by a product described in paragraph (a) above.

(c) a product or technology intended to enhance the use or effect of a product described in paragraph (a) or (b) above. Or (d) any device used in the administration of any such product, and all components and constituent materials of any such product. To be a Covered Countermeasure under the Declaration, a product must also meet 42 U.S.C.

247d-6d(i)(1)'s definition of “Covered Countermeasure.” VII. Limitations on Distribution 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(a)(5) and (b)(2)(E) I have determined that liability protections are afforded to Covered Persons only for Recommended Activities involving.

(a) Covered Countermeasures that are related to present or future federal contracts, cooperative agreements, grants, other transactions, interagency agreements, memoranda of understanding, or other federal agreements. (b) Covered Countermeasures that are related to activities authorized in accordance with the public health and medical response of the Authority Having Jurisdiction to prescribe, administer, deliver, distribute or dispense the Covered Countermeasures following a Declaration of Emergency. Or (c) Covered Countermeasures that are.

I. Licensed, approved, cleared, or authorized by the FDA (or that are permitted to be used under an Investigational New Drug Application or an Investigational Device Exemption) under the FD&C Act or PHS Act to treat, diagnose, cure, prevent, mitigate, or limit the harm from erectile dysfunction treatment, or the transmission of erectile dysfunction or a kamagra mutating therefrom. OrStart Printed Page 79197 ii.

A respiratory protective device approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or any successor regulations, that the Secretary determines to be a priority for use during a public health emergency declared under section 319 of the PHS Act to prevent, mitigate, or limit the harm from erectile dysfunction treatment, or the transmission of erectile dysfunction or a kamagra mutating therefrom. To qualify for this third distribution channel, a Covered Person must manufacture, test, develop, distribute, administer, or use the Covered Countermeasure pursuant to the FDA licensure, approval, clearance, or authorization (or pursuant to an Investigational New Drug Application or Investigational Device Exemption), or the NIOSH approval. As used in this Declaration, the terms “Authority Having Jurisdiction” and “Declaration of Emergency” have the following meanings.

(a) The Authority Having Jurisdiction means the public agency or its delegate that has legal responsibility and authority for responding to an incident, based on political or geographical (e.g., city, county, tribal, state, or federal boundary lines) or functional (e.g., law enforcement, public health) range or sphere of authority. (b) A Declaration of Emergency means any declaration by any authorized local, regional, state, or federal official of an emergency specific to events that indicate an immediate need to administer and use the Covered Countermeasures, with the exception of a federal declaration in support of an Emergency Use Authorization under Section 564 of the FD&C Act unless such declaration specifies otherwise. I have also determined that, for governmental program planners only, liability protections are afforded only to the extent such program planners obtain Covered Countermeasures through voluntary means, such as (a) donation.

(b) commercial sale. (c) deployment of Covered Countermeasures from federal stockpiles. Or (d) deployment of donated, purchased, or otherwise voluntarily obtained Covered Countermeasures from state, local, or private stockpiles.

VIII. Category of Disease, Health Condition, or Threat 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(b)(2)(A) The category of disease, health condition, or threat for which I recommend the administration or use of the Covered Countermeasures is not only erectile dysfunction treatment caused by erectile dysfunction, or a kamagra mutating therefrom, but also other diseases, health conditions, or threats that may have been caused by erectile dysfunction treatment, erectile dysfunction, or a kamagra mutating therefrom, including the decrease in the rate of childhood immunizations, which will lead to an increase in the rate of infectious diseases.

IX. Administration of Covered Countermeasures 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(a)(2)(B) Administration of the Covered Countermeasure means physical provision of the countermeasures to recipients, or activities and decisions directly relating to public and private delivery, distribution and dispensing of the countermeasures to recipients, management and operation of countermeasure programs, or management and operation of locations for the purpose of distributing and dispensing countermeasures.

Where there are limited Covered Countermeasures, not administering a Covered Countermeasure to one individual in order to administer it to another individual can constitute “relating to. . .

An individual” under 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d. For example, consider a situation where there is only one dose [] of a erectile dysfunction treatment, and a person in a vulnerable population and a person in a less vulnerable population both request it from a healthcare professional.

In that situation, the healthcare professional administers the one dose to the person who is more vulnerable to erectile dysfunction treatment. In that circumstance, the failure to administer the erectile dysfunction treatment to the person in a less-vulnerable population “relat[es] to. .

. The administration to” the person in a vulnerable population. The person in the vulnerable population was able to receive the treatment only because it was not administered to the person in the less-vulnerable population.

Prioritization or purposeful allocation of a Covered Countermeasure, particularly if done in accordance with a public health authority's directive, can fall within the PREP Act and this Declaration's liability protections. X. Population 42 U.S.C.

247d-6d(a)(4), 247d-6d(b)(2)(C) The populations of individuals to whom the liability protections of this Declaration extend include any individual who uses or is administered the Covered Countermeasures in accordance with this Declaration. Liability protections are afforded to manufacturers and distributors without regard to whether the countermeasure is used by or administered to this population. Liability protections are afforded to program planners and qualified persons when the countermeasure is used by or administered to this population, or the program planner or qualified person reasonably could have believed the recipient was in this population.

XI. Geographic Area 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(a)(4), 247d-6d(b)(2)(D) Liability protections are afforded for the administration or use of a Covered Countermeasure without geographic limitation.

Liability protections are afforded to manufacturers and distributors without regard to whether the Covered Countermeasure is used by or administered in any designated geographic area. Liability protections are afforded to program planners and qualified persons when the countermeasure is used by or administered in any designated geographic area, or the program planner or qualified person reasonably could have believed the recipient was in that geographic area. erectile dysfunction treatment is a global challenge that requires a whole-of-nation response.

There are substantial federal legal and policy issues, and substantial federal legal and policy interests within the meaning of Grable &. Sons Metal Products, Inc. V.

308 (2005), in having a unified, whole-of-nation response to the erectile dysfunction treatment kamagra among federal, state, local, and private-sector entities. The world is facing an unprecedented kamagra. To effectively respond, there must be a more consistent pathway for Covered Persons to manufacture, distribute, administer or use Covered Countermeasures across the nation and the world.

Thus, there are substantial federal legal and policy issues, and substantial federal legal and policy interests within the meaning of Grable &. Sons Metal Products, Inc. V.

308 (2005), in having a uniform interpretation of the PREP Act. Under the PREP Act, the sole exception to the immunity from suit and liability of covered persons under the PREP Act is an exclusive Federal cause of action against a covered person for death or serious physical injury proximately caused by willful misconduct by such covered person. In all other cases, an injured party's exclusive remedy is an administrative Start Printed Page 79198remedy under section 319F-4 of the PHS Act.

Through the PREP Act, Congress delegated to me the authority to strike the appropriate Federal-state balance with respect to particular Covered Countermeasures through PREP Act declarations.[] XII. Effective Time Period 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(b)(2)(B) Liability protections for any respiratory protective device approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or any successor regulations, through the means of distribution identified in Section VII(a) of this Declaration, begin on March 27, 2020 and extend through October 1, 2024.

Liability protections for all other Covered Countermeasures identified in Section VI of this Declaration, through means of distribution identified in Section VII(a) of this Declaration, begin on February 4, 2020 and extend through October 1, 2024. Liability protections for all Covered Countermeasures administered and used in accordance with the public health and medical response of the Authority Having Jurisdiction, as identified in Section VII(b) of this Declaration, begin with a Declaration of Emergency as that term is defined in Section VII (except that, with respect to qualified persons who order or administer a routine childhood vaccination that ACIP recommends to persons ages three through 18 according to ACIP's standard immunization schedule, liability protections began on August 24, 2020), and last through (a) the final day the Declaration of Emergency is in effect, or (b) October 1, 2024, whichever occurs first. Liability protections for all Covered Countermeasures identified in Section VII(c) of this Declaration begin on the date of this amended Declaration and last through (a) the final day the Declaration of Emergency is in effect, or (b) October 1, 2024, whichever occurs first.

XIII. Additional Time Period of Coverage 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(b)(3)(B) and (C) I have determined that an additional 12 months of liability protection is reasonable to allow for the manufacturer(s) to arrange for disposition of the Covered Countermeasure, including return of the Covered Countermeasures to the manufacturer, and for Covered Persons to take such other actions as are appropriate to limit the administration or use of the Covered Countermeasures.

Covered Countermeasures obtained for the SNS during the effective period of this Declaration are covered through the date of administration or use pursuant to a distribution or release from the SNS. XIV. Countermeasures Injury Compensation Program 42 U.S.C 247d-6e The PREP Act authorizes the Countermeasures Injury Compensation Program (CICP) to provide benefits to certain individuals or estates of individuals who sustain a covered serious physical injury as the direct result of the administration or use of the Covered Countermeasures, and benefits to certain survivors of individuals who die as a direct result of the administration or use of the Covered Countermeasures.

The causal connection between the countermeasure and the serious physical injury must be supported by compelling, reliable, valid, medical and scientific evidence in order for the individual to be considered for compensation. The CICP is administered by the Health Resources and Services Administration, within the Department of Health and Human Services. Information about the CICP is available at the toll-free number 1-855-266-2427 or http://www.hrsa.gov/​cicp/​.

XV. Amendments 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d(b)(4) Amendments to this Declaration will be published in the Federal Register, as warranted.

Start Authority 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d. End Authority Start Signature Dated.

December 3, 2020. Alex M. Azar II, Secretary of Health and Human Services.

End Signature End Supplemental Information [FR Doc. 2020-26977 Filed 12-8-20. 8:45 am]BILLING CODE 4150-37-P.

Where can I keep Kamagra?

Keep out of reach of children. Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F). Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date.

Kamagra i alkohol

Patients are more likely to experience preventable harm during perioperative care than in any other type of healthcare encounter.1 2 For several decades, a hallmark of surgical quality and safety has been the use of checklists to prevent errors (eg, wrong site kamagra i alkohol surgery) and assure that key tasks have been or will Buy flagyl over the counter be performed. The most widely used approach globally is the Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC) recommended by the WHO.3 It is divided into preinduction (or kamagra i alkohol sign in, consisting of seven items performed by anaesthesia and nursing), preincision (timeout, 10 items performed by the entire team) and postsurgery (sign out, five items by the entire team).4 5 Most hospitals in the developed world perform the SSC or an equivalent timeout prior to surgical incision. However, preinduction briefings, and postcase debriefings in particular, are much less commonly performed.6 7There are widely disseminated arguments recommending the use of checklists in healthcare8 but also recognised limitations.9 Checklist-based preincision timeouts appear to improve surgical outcomes in many settings,4 5 yet, in other hospitals, the introduction of the SSC failed to improve outcomes.10 Like all tools or processes intended to improve safety, ineffective implementation will reduce the desired benefits.

For example, there is appreciable evidence showing that surgical teams skip or do not meaningfully respond to timeout checklist items.11 12 Even with a robust implementation, effectiveness can be weakened by contextual factors, failure of leadership or deficient safety culture.Despite numerous studies, gaps in the evidence to guide optimal checklist use persist kamagra i alkohol. For example, we do not know whether checklist-based timeouts only decrease the occurrence of the undesirable events targeted by the checklist or, as many hypothesise, whether their use also facilitates teamwork and interprofessional communication. Although there is increasing guidance on how to optimally kamagra i alkohol implement checklists at the local level, many questions remain.13 Moreover, we still do not understand the circumstances in which checklist use facilitates the detection, reporting and correction of errors.In this issue of the journal, Muensterer and colleagues14 describe a clever study in which the attending surgeon intentionally introduced errors during the preincision timeout while a medical student in the operating theatre surreptitiously noted whether the error was detected and reported by one or more members of the surgical team.

If the error was not verbalised, the attending surgeon corrected the error before the timeout was complete. The single error embedded in each of 120 of 1800 paediatric operations was randomly chosen from kamagra i alkohol among wrong patient name, age, gender, allergy or surgical procedure, side or site. Overall, only about half (65.

54%) of all kamagra i alkohol errors were detected and reported by a team member prior to surgeon correction. Of these, errors were most commonly reported by the anaesthesiologist (64%) and almost never by residents in training (6%) or medical students (1%).This study also has important limitations. Because the investigators were leading the timeouts as part of a research study, adherence to all of kamagra i alkohol the checklist items was reportedly 100%.

Yet, few organisations consistently attain timeout adherence above 90%.11 Since you are less likely to catch an error if you do not address that item during the timeout, in institutions with lower adherence, the proportion of missed errors may be even higher.The authors, with input from their institutional review board, designed the study to be feasible and compliant with established human subjects protection principles. As such, the attending surgeon always corrected the error after the anaesthesiologist’s kamagra i alkohol component of the timeout but before the nurses’ component. By excluding the part of the timeout when the nurses address their checklist items (eg, instruments are sterile,) followed by a final opportunity as the timeout ends to note any errors or concerns, the study may have underestimated the rate of error reporting.Because the study did not query team members individually after the timeout, we also do not know how many errors were detected but not annunciated.

For example, recognised errors that were attributed to ‘misspeaking’ and/or had kamagra i alkohol no clinical significance may not have been verbally challenged. Moreover, as is discussed by the authors, there was an unequivocal hierarchy effect—individuals with the least ‘power’ (ie, low in hierarchy within the current healthcare culture) were the least likely to report the error.This study highlights two important safety relevant questions on which I will elaborate. First, why and how should we change healthcare culture to kamagra i alkohol facilitate ‘speaking up’?.

Second, how can we best design and implement checklists and other safety interventions to yield more consistent and sustained clinician behaviour change?. The continued problem of hierarchical culture in healthcareThe significant influence of hierarchy on the incidence of error reporting in Muensterer et al’s14 study is consistent with substantial prior evidence that lower hierarchy clinical providers are less likely to ‘speak up’, even when kamagra i alkohol they are aware of major safety violations.15–17Failure of a subordinate copilot to challenge or speak up to the captain in the 1977 Tenerife disaster was the impetus for the aviation industry’s adoption of crew resource management (CRM). Healthcare team-training initiatives like the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s TeamSTEPPS now include tools such as the ‘two-challenge rule’ and emphasise speaking up.18 Flattened hierarchies and reliance on expertise rather than seniority, especially during crisis or stress, are an integral component of high-reliability organisations.

In contrast, the persistent hierarchical culture of healthcare is anathema to kamagra i alkohol positive safety attitudes and behaviours. This is particularly problematic in operating theatres where surgeons view themselves as ‘captain of the ship’ and where uncivil behaviour is tolerated.19 The insidious effects of hierarchy will impair effectiveness of checklist use and predispose to safety issues in all aspects of routine and emergency care.20 While team-oriented training designed to enhance the ability of lower hierarchy clinicians to ‘speak up’ can be effective,21 22 evidence to guide the design and implementation of these interventions is still sparse. Single training exposures have generally had limited effects,17 23 in part likely due to inadequate ‘potency’ to achieve the desired effect24 in a clinical environment contaminated by the hierarchical culture and in part because most interventions have focused on ‘assertiveness’ training for the less powerful members of the team rather than, or in addition to, sensitivity or receptivity training of the most powerful (eg, surgical attendings).17Discussions of power hierarchy to date have largely focused on clinicians’ professional roles (ie, nurse vs physician) and level of kamagra i alkohol experience (eg, resident vs attending).

Even with two attending physicians, for example, a surgeon and anaesthesiologist, power dynamics can degrade communication and decrease team performance. In a multicentre study of experienced anaesthesiologists managing simulated crisis events, the anaesthesiologists’ failure to challenge the surgeon to initiate life-saving interventions (eg, to open the abdomen in the presence of an enlarging retroperitoneal haematoma during laparoscopic surgery, or to halt surgery kamagra i alkohol to cardiovert an unstable patient) was associated with lower overall scenario performance scores as determined by trained blinded anaesthesiologist video raters.25In fact, hierarchy is much more complex and this may explain in part the variable and generally weak results seen in ‘speaking up’ intervention studies to date. When considering hierarchical effects on communication assertiveness, one must also consider individual characteristics including gender, race/ethnicity, language, personal cultural background and personality, as well as the personality of those in higher power roles, microclimate factors of the team and care unit, and overall organisational culture.17 22 An interesting direction for future study is the facilitation of more positive communication (eg, expressions of gratitude or encouragement).26In a single-site intervention study to improve the quality of handovers from anaesthesia professionals to postanaesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses,27 simulation-based training emphasised specific dyadic communication behaviours—assertiveness for the nurses when their needs were not being met and ‘sensitivity’ (or receptiveness) for the anaesthesia professionals when the nurses raised concerns.

In poststudy interviews, this behavioural focus was considered an important contributor to the resulting sustained improvement in the quality of kamagra i alkohol actual handovers. As part of this study, we explicitly taught participants to CUSS. CUSS is a graduated approach to facilitate speaking kamagra i alkohol up.

The acronym stands for ‘I’m Concerned’, ‘I’m Uncomfortable’, ‘This is a Safety issue’ and ‘Stop!. €™. The intended learners were taught these ‘triggers’ for eliciting desired behaviours (ie, to stop what they are doing and have a conversation with the initiator) and this approach creates an environment where the initiating individual can receive support from others who overhear the conversation—‘Doctor, I hear that Maria is CUSSing at you?.

How can I help to resolve this situation?. €™ Such a graded assertiveness approach to ‘stop the line’, developed in other industries, is increasingly being used throughout healthcare.28Designing and implementing more effective safety tools and processesSSCs are just one tool used to advance overall perioperative system safety. Similarly, in commercial aviation, checklists are one tool used as part of CRM to assure operational safety.

CRM is a philosophy or construct that includes explicit values and principles, procedures supported by purpose-designed checklists and other tools, and regularly scheduled mandatory simulation-based training and assessment that together contribute to an existing safety culture in pilots and across the organisation.29 CRM and most of the existing aviation safety system were iteratively designed by pilots (the front-line workers) in collaboration with other stakeholders (including regulators). Healthcare must employ similar human-centred design approaches to re-engineer our safety systems.For commercial aviation to be completely safe, no planes would fly. Similarly, safety will never be the foremost system objective in healthcare.

The primary goal is to efficiently deliver cost-effective care. Instead, in any high-consequence industry, safety is a desirable by-product (an ‘emergent feature’) of a system designed to achieve primary operational goals. In healthcare, sick patients must be treated and there is inherent risk in doing so.30 Achieving societally acceptable levels of safety will stem from a deliberately designed system founded on a strong safety culture and truly committed leadership.With this as background, it is not surprising that so many hospitals struggle to garner reliable and sustained benefit from the use of checklists and other safety tools.

To understand what is required, I would like to draw parallels with anaesthesiology’s experience of implementing another type of checklist.The Food and Drug Administration Anesthesia Machine Pre-Use ChecklistThe earliest checklist used in healthcare to reduce adverse events is the anaesthesia equipment preuse checklist, developed in 1987 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in collaboration with the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation and the American Society of Anesthesiologists.31 After more than three decades of use, lessons learnt from the use of the FDA checklist parallel more recent experiences with SSCs, and are instructive to a more general understanding of the role of safety tools in healthcare (see table 1).View this table:Table 1 Lessons learnt from 30 years of personal experience with and reflection about the Anesthesia Equipment Pre-Use Checklist*A checklist alone is insufficient to achieve optimal resultsHospitals that get the best results from an SSC implementation are often well-resourced organisations that already have safety-oriented committed leadership, a strong safety culture, educated and engaged front-line clinicians and an established track record of successfully implementing other safety interventions.32 That said, any hospital, given adequate commitment, resources and expertise, can implement an SSC or other substantive safety intervention successfully. In doing so, it will educate and engage its workers, improve its safety culture and set the stage for further safety and quality improvements.A multimodal approach to safety interventions is more effective. Hospitals that were able to successfully implement all three components of the SSC saw greater reductions in postoperative complications.33 Similarly, the combination of the SSC with a complementary approach that more fully addresses preoperative and postoperative issues, the Surgical Patient Safety System, was associated with better postoperative outcomes than use of the WHO SSC alone.34 The most effective interventions are those that are based on an integrated conceptual framework and follow human factor principles, especially when the safety goals are multiple or diverse.35In our PACU handover improvement project mentioned earlier,27 the multimodal intervention produced a fourfold improvement in observed clinician behaviours (ie, conduct of actual handovers) that was sustained for at least 3 years after the intervention ceased.

The project began by getting perioperative leadership buy-in, conducting observations of the current handover process and engaging front-line clinicians in all phases of study development. The criteria for an ‘acceptable handover’ were chosen by an independent team of clinicians. Front-line clinicians first completed a multimedia introductory webinar that included key principles and a knowledge assessment.

To attend the 2-hour simulation training session, both anaesthesia professionals and PACU nurses were relieved from regular clinical duties (a strong message that this was an organisational priority). A custom patient-specific electronic form was available at every bedside in the PACU to reinforce the training during actual handovers. Performance feedback was provided to individuals, units and perioperative leadership.

The number of components needed for successful safety interventions will depend on the behaviour change desired, the existing safety culture, current experience and expertise of the intended end users and the priority articulated by organisational leaders. Regardless, design and implementation must be based on a solid conceptual framework, consider the full life-cycle of the intervention (from conceptualisation to obsolescence) and employ human factors engineering and implementation science principles and tools.13ConclusionChecklists and other safety tools are potentially valuable tools to advance perioperative safety. However, when used in isolation or implemented incorrectly, checklists have significant limitations.

Safety initiatives that take a systems-oriented multimodal approach to design and implementation can, with organisational leadership and determination, produce both targeted and more general safety improvement.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required.Many patients admitted to hospital require venous access to infuse medications and fluids. The most commonly used device, the peripheral venous catheter, ranges from 2.5 to 4.5 cm in length, and is typically used for less than 5 days. The midline, a relatively newer peripheral venous catheter, is up to 20 cm in length, but does not reach the central veins, and may be used for up to 2 weeks.

A peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) is a longer catheter that is placed in one of the arm veins and extends to reach the central veins. The PICC is used for longer periods of time compared with peripheral intravenous devices, and initially gained popularity as a convenient vascular access device used in the outpatient and home settings. Its premise has been to provide access that lasts for weeks, that is fairly safe and easily manageable.

Patients often require central venous access when hospitalised, with more than half of patients in intensive care, and up to 20% in those cared for in the non-intensive care wards.1 Common indications for PICC use in the acute care setting include the requirement for multiple and frequent infusions (eg, antibiotics, parenteral nutrition), the administration of medications incompatible with peripheral infusion, invasive haemodynamic monitoring in critically ill patients, very poor venous access and frequent need for blood draws.2 Specially trained healthcare workers place PICCs, often nurses from a vascular access team (VAT), or interventional radiologists. The VAT is comprised of skilled nurses, with either medical/surgical, emergency department or intensive care unit backgrounds. Contrary to other healthcare workers that place PICCs, the VAT’s primary function is to place PICCs, and optimise the infusion delivery, through a safe and effective process.

Its scope includes assessment for need, peripheral and central device insertion, monitoring of use and removal.3In their study of five hospitals within the Veterans Administration (VA) healthcare systems in the USA, Krein et al4 underscore the importance of a formal VAT to formulate and implement explicit appropriateness criteria, ensure timely insertion and safe management and direct patient education around PICC use. They found that team structures supporting line placement vary across hospitals from a dedicated team, to individual nurses trained in placement, to hospitals where only interventional radiologists insert PICCs. The presence of a VAT was associated with more defined criteria for PICC use, but a recurrent theme was inadequate interdisciplinary dialogue.

Although qualitative data were gathered at five VA hospitals only, the study’s findings reflect the variation in PICC placement and use, whether in academic or community, small or large hospitals.An important factor in variation in the approach to PICC line placement and management is the availability of resources and expertise at the hospital site. For example, if healthcare workers have suboptimal skills to place peripheral venous catheters, including midlines,5 clinicians may resort to ordering more PICCs unnecessarily to fill that void. Furthermore, as revealed in Krein’s study, a hospital that does not have the expertise to learn about alternative devices, such as those with lower risks and shorter dwell times (eg, midlines), may resort to using more PICCs than necessary.

Similarly, hospitals without clinicians skilled or comfortable placing other central lines6 may rely more on using PICCs. In addition, the lack of an available VAT to place PICCs using uasound guidance may result in more referrals to interventional radiology for placement, potentially exposing the patient to avoidable radiation during fluoroscopy.7We propose an approach to improve the appropriate and safe use of PICCs by focusing on three elements that address the findings by Krein and colleagues. Establishing a structure powered by a VAT.

Anchoring a standardised process for line selection, insertion and care. And promoting adoption by engagement with the key stakeholders.Establishing a structure to support placement and management of PICCs depends on whether the number of devices placed is enough to support the creation of a dedicated vascular access programme. Leadership plays a critical role to invest the resources for a functional VAT, understanding the financial and quality benefits associated.8 Not realising its value, hospital leaders may view the VAT as a non-revenue-generating service, putting it at risk when considering cost reduction strategies.

The value of the VAT expands from mitigating preventable events (eg, deep venous thrombosis, ) to enhancing patient experience (eg, less attempts to place a peripheral device).9 In addition, better outcomes help curb the financial risks (eg, hospital-acquired condition penalties)8 and improve hospital ratings. The VAT’s role encompasses placing PICCs and guaranteeing the proper selection of the intravascular device and its appropriate use.2The second element involves standardising processes for line selection and care, regardless of who is taking care of the device. Implementing policies to address indications, placement and maintenance and using standardised kits help minimise variation.

The creation of policies should be achieved through a multidisciplinary approach with VAT, nurses and physicians. The VAT can act as the ‘gate keeper’ evaluating whether the reason for PICC placement is aligned with indications. In addition, the VAT plays a critical role supporting nurses’ competencies for venous catheter use (eg, aseptic access and maintenance, addressing complications and mitigating risk)10 to reduce mechanical11 and infectious complications.12 The VAT performs regular rounds to mitigate process gaps (eg, dressing site intactness) and to identify complications (eg, PICC site erythema or drainage, arm swelling), and provides timely feedback on clinical performance.

The VAT can also serve as subject matter experts to the ordering physicians for the appropriate device type, based on vessel size and indications for use, how many lumens, site selection and a de-escalation plan for the patient prior to discharge. It also provides services should a device-related complication occur (eg, clotting), and works with clinicians to remedy the issue and salvage the device, thereby preventing a patient from losing their vascular access and/or having to replace it.The last element, and perhaps most significant, is to enhance the adoption of best practices through a partnership with the key stakeholders. PICC-associated outcomes are not only owned by the VAT, rather it is the responsibility of the clinicians, physicians and nurses to achieve those goals (table 1).

Physicians are an essential stakeholder group to engage as they are the ones responsible for ordering the PICC. An identified physician champion who partners and empowers the VAT will help resolve any barriers and be a liaison with the local physician community.13 The ideal physician champion should have the respect of peers, understand process optimisation and promote quality improvement. They need to be well versed on the appropriate indications for PICC use, the associated complications and risks and alternatives to the device.

The physician champion engages the leaders of the key disciplines responsible for requesting a PICC, educating them on the appropriate indications for use, the outcomes associated with PICC use, inviting them to be partners and responding to any of their concerns.View this table:Table 1 Disciplines and their support to mitigate PICC harmWhat about the key physician disciplines to engage?. Physicians can play an active role in enhancing PICC use through avoiding the unnecessary use of infusions. The consultation of infectious diseases specialists for intravenous antibiotic use appropriateness has been associated with less PICC use and lower complications.14 Similarly, having a surgeon support the decision for whether enteral or parenteral nutrition is needed will help reduce unnecessary device use.15 Disciplines like hospitalists or general internists care for a large number of patients and often order PICCs for venous access,16 while nephrologists may advocate avoiding the use of PICCs in the chronic kidney disease population in an effort for vein preservation.17 In hospitals with teaching programmes, the VAT and its physician champion may educate physicians in training on device choice, placement and duration of use, and address with their faculty competencies for line management.18 Engaging these disciplines, elucidating the indications for appropriate use and providing feedback and local data on the potential harm ensure accountability and further attention to PICC safety.In summary, the PICC is one of the primary solutions to achieve vascular access.

With up to one in five patients at risk for developing complications,19 it is incumbent on us to ensure that these devices are properly used and maintained. Identifying and overcoming system barriers are key to delivering sustainable safe outcomes. As a first step, clinical and administrative leaders, realising the financial and quality benefits, need to support the structure reflected by the VAT to enhance PICC care.

Second, the VAT must partner with disciplines (particularly nursing) to promote and ensure adequate competencies for placement and maintenance. Finally, clinical disciplines caring for the patient should instil a collaborative environment for better decision-making on when central access is required, and what device provides the safest and most effective delivery of care.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required..

Patients are more likely to experience preventable harm during perioperative buy chewable kamagra care than in any other type of healthcare encounter.1 2 For several decades, a hallmark of surgical quality and Buy flagyl over the counter safety has been the use of checklists to prevent errors (eg, wrong site surgery) and assure that key tasks have been or will be performed. The most widely used buy chewable kamagra approach globally is the Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC) recommended by the WHO.3 It is divided into preinduction (or sign in, consisting of seven items performed by anaesthesia and nursing), preincision (timeout, 10 items performed by the entire team) and postsurgery (sign out, five items by the entire team).4 5 Most hospitals in the developed world perform the SSC or an equivalent timeout prior to surgical incision. However, preinduction briefings, and postcase debriefings in particular, are much less commonly performed.6 7There are widely disseminated arguments recommending the use of checklists in healthcare8 but also recognised limitations.9 Checklist-based preincision timeouts appear to improve surgical outcomes in many settings,4 5 yet, in other hospitals, the introduction of the SSC failed to improve outcomes.10 Like all tools or processes intended to improve safety, ineffective implementation will reduce the desired benefits.

For example, there is appreciable evidence showing that surgical teams skip or do not meaningfully respond to timeout checklist items.11 12 Even with a robust implementation, effectiveness can be weakened by contextual factors, failure of leadership or deficient safety culture.Despite numerous studies, gaps in the buy chewable kamagra evidence to guide optimal checklist use persist. For example, we do not know whether checklist-based timeouts only decrease the occurrence of the undesirable events targeted by the checklist or, as many hypothesise, whether their use also facilitates teamwork and interprofessional communication. Although there is increasing guidance on how to optimally implement checklists at the local level, many questions remain.13 Moreover, we still do not understand the circumstances in which checklist use facilitates the detection, reporting and correction of errors.In this issue of the journal, Muensterer and colleagues14 describe a clever study in which the attending surgeon intentionally introduced errors during the preincision timeout while a medical student in buy chewable kamagra the operating theatre surreptitiously noted whether the error was detected and reported by one or more members of the surgical team.

If the error was not verbalised, the attending surgeon corrected the error before the timeout was complete. The single error embedded in each of 120 of 1800 paediatric operations was randomly chosen from among wrong patient buy chewable kamagra name, age, gender, allergy or surgical procedure, side or site. Overall, only about half (65.

54%) of all errors were buy chewable kamagra detected and reported by a team member prior to surgeon correction. Of these, errors were most commonly reported by the anaesthesiologist (64%) and almost never by residents in training (6%) or medical students (1%).This study also has important limitations. Because the investigators were leading the timeouts as part of a research study, adherence to all of the checklist buy chewable kamagra items was reportedly 100%.

Yet, few organisations consistently attain timeout adherence above 90%.11 Since you are less likely to catch an error if you do not address that item during the timeout, in institutions with lower adherence, the proportion of missed errors may be even higher.The authors, with input from their institutional review board, designed the study to be feasible and compliant with established human subjects protection principles. As such, the attending surgeon always corrected the error after the anaesthesiologist’s component of the timeout but before the nurses’ buy chewable kamagra component. By excluding the part of the timeout when the nurses address their checklist items (eg, instruments are sterile,) followed by a final opportunity as the timeout ends to note any errors or concerns, the study may have underestimated the rate of error reporting.Because the study did not query team members individually after the timeout, we also do not know how many errors were detected but not annunciated.

For example, recognised errors that were attributed to ‘misspeaking’ and/or had no clinical buy chewable kamagra significance may not have been verbally challenged. Moreover, as is discussed by the authors, there was an unequivocal hierarchy effect—individuals with the least ‘power’ (ie, low in hierarchy within the current healthcare culture) were the least likely to report the error.This study highlights two important safety relevant questions on which I will elaborate. First, why buy chewable kamagra and how should we change healthcare culture to facilitate ‘speaking up’?.

Second, how can we best design and implement checklists and other safety interventions to yield more consistent and sustained clinician behaviour change?. The continued problem of hierarchical culture in healthcareThe significant influence of hierarchy on the incidence of error reporting in Muensterer et al’s14 study is consistent with substantial prior evidence that lower hierarchy clinical providers are less likely to ‘speak up’, even when they are aware of major buy chewable kamagra safety violations.15–17Failure of a subordinate copilot to challenge or speak up to the captain in the 1977 Tenerife disaster was the impetus for the aviation industry’s adoption of crew resource management (CRM). Healthcare team-training initiatives like the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s TeamSTEPPS now include tools such as the ‘two-challenge rule’ and emphasise speaking up.18 Flattened hierarchies and reliance on expertise rather than seniority, especially during crisis or stress, are an integral component of high-reliability organisations.

In contrast, the persistent hierarchical buy chewable kamagra culture of healthcare is anathema to positive safety attitudes and behaviours. This is particularly problematic in operating theatres where surgeons view themselves as ‘captain of the ship’ and where uncivil behaviour is tolerated.19 The insidious effects of hierarchy will impair effectiveness of checklist use and predispose to safety issues in all aspects of routine and emergency care.20 While team-oriented training designed to enhance the ability of lower hierarchy clinicians to ‘speak up’ can be effective,21 22 evidence to guide the design and implementation of these interventions is still sparse. Single training exposures have generally had limited effects,17 23 in part likely due to buy chewable kamagra inadequate ‘potency’ to achieve the desired effect24 in a clinical environment contaminated by the hierarchical culture and in part because most interventions have focused on ‘assertiveness’ training for the less powerful members of the team rather than, or in addition to, sensitivity or receptivity training of the most powerful (eg, surgical attendings).17Discussions of power hierarchy to date have largely focused on clinicians’ professional roles (ie, nurse vs physician) and level of experience (eg, resident vs attending).

Even with two attending physicians, for example, a surgeon and anaesthesiologist, power dynamics can degrade communication and decrease team performance. In a multicentre study of experienced anaesthesiologists managing simulated crisis events, the anaesthesiologists’ failure to challenge the surgeon to initiate life-saving interventions (eg, to open the abdomen in the presence buy chewable kamagra of an enlarging retroperitoneal haematoma during laparoscopic surgery, or to halt surgery to cardiovert an unstable patient) was associated with lower overall scenario performance scores as determined by trained blinded anaesthesiologist video raters.25In fact, hierarchy is much more complex and this may explain in part the variable and generally weak results seen in ‘speaking up’ intervention studies to date. When considering hierarchical effects on communication assertiveness, one must also consider individual characteristics including gender, race/ethnicity, language, personal cultural background and personality, as well as the personality of those in higher power roles, microclimate factors of the team and care unit, and overall organisational culture.17 22 An interesting direction for future study is the facilitation of more positive communication (eg, expressions of gratitude or encouragement).26In a single-site intervention study to improve the quality of handovers from anaesthesia professionals to postanaesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses,27 simulation-based training emphasised specific dyadic communication behaviours—assertiveness for the nurses when their needs were not being met and ‘sensitivity’ (or receptiveness) for the anaesthesia professionals when the nurses raised concerns.

In poststudy interviews, this behavioural focus was considered an buy chewable kamagra important contributor to the resulting sustained improvement in the quality of actual handovers. As part of this study, we explicitly taught participants to CUSS. CUSS is buy chewable kamagra a graduated approach to facilitate speaking up.

The acronym stands for ‘I’m Concerned’, ‘I’m Uncomfortable’, ‘This is a Safety issue’ and ‘Stop!. €™. The intended learners were taught these ‘triggers’ for eliciting desired behaviours (ie, to stop what they are doing and have a conversation with the initiator) and this approach creates an environment where the initiating individual can receive support from others who overhear the conversation—‘Doctor, I hear that Maria is CUSSing at you?.

How can I help to resolve this situation?. €™ Such a graded assertiveness approach to ‘stop the line’, developed in other industries, is increasingly being used throughout healthcare.28Designing and implementing more effective safety tools and processesSSCs are just one tool used to advance overall perioperative system safety. Similarly, in commercial aviation, checklists are one tool used as part of CRM to assure operational safety.

CRM is a philosophy or construct that includes explicit values and principles, procedures supported by purpose-designed checklists and other tools, and regularly scheduled mandatory simulation-based training and assessment that together contribute to an existing safety culture in pilots and across the organisation.29 CRM and most of the existing aviation safety system were iteratively designed by pilots (the front-line workers) in collaboration with other stakeholders (including regulators). Healthcare must employ similar human-centred design approaches to re-engineer our safety systems.For commercial aviation to be completely safe, no planes would fly. Similarly, safety will never be the foremost system objective in healthcare.

The primary goal is to efficiently deliver cost-effective care. Instead, in any high-consequence industry, safety is a desirable by-product (an ‘emergent feature’) of a system designed to achieve primary operational goals. In healthcare, sick patients must be treated and there is inherent risk in doing so.30 Achieving societally acceptable levels of safety will stem from a deliberately designed system founded on a strong safety culture and truly committed leadership.With this as background, it is not surprising that so many hospitals struggle to garner reliable and sustained benefit from the use of checklists and other safety tools.

To understand what is required, I would like to draw parallels with anaesthesiology’s experience of implementing another type of checklist.The Food and Drug Administration Anesthesia Machine Pre-Use ChecklistThe earliest checklist used in healthcare to reduce adverse events is the anaesthesia equipment preuse checklist, developed in 1987 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in collaboration with the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation and the American Society of Anesthesiologists.31 After more than three decades of use, lessons learnt from the use of the FDA checklist parallel more recent experiences with SSCs, and are instructive to a more general understanding of the role of safety tools in healthcare (see table 1).View this table:Table 1 Lessons learnt from 30 years of personal experience with and reflection about the Anesthesia Equipment Pre-Use Checklist*A checklist alone is insufficient to achieve optimal resultsHospitals that get the best results from an SSC implementation are often well-resourced organisations that already have safety-oriented committed leadership, a strong safety culture, educated and engaged front-line clinicians and an established track record of successfully implementing other safety interventions.32 That said, any hospital, given adequate commitment, resources and expertise, can implement an SSC or other substantive safety intervention successfully. In doing so, it will educate and engage its workers, improve its safety culture and set the stage for further safety and quality improvements.A multimodal approach to safety interventions is more effective. Hospitals that were able to successfully implement all three components of the SSC saw greater reductions in postoperative complications.33 Similarly, the combination of the SSC with a complementary approach that more fully addresses preoperative and postoperative issues, the Surgical Patient Safety System, was associated with better postoperative outcomes than use of the WHO SSC alone.34 The most effective interventions are those that are based on an integrated conceptual framework and follow human factor principles, especially when the safety goals are multiple or diverse.35In our PACU handover improvement project mentioned earlier,27 the multimodal intervention produced a fourfold improvement in observed clinician behaviours (ie, conduct of actual handovers) that was sustained for at least 3 years after the intervention ceased.

The project began by getting perioperative leadership buy-in, conducting observations of the current handover process and engaging front-line clinicians in all phases of study development. The criteria for an ‘acceptable handover’ were chosen by an independent team of clinicians. Front-line clinicians first completed a multimedia introductory webinar that included key principles and a knowledge assessment.

To attend the 2-hour simulation training session, both anaesthesia professionals and PACU nurses were relieved from regular clinical duties (a strong message that this was an organisational priority). A custom patient-specific electronic form was available at every bedside in the PACU to reinforce the training during actual handovers. Performance feedback was provided to individuals, units and perioperative leadership.

The number of components needed for successful safety interventions will depend on the behaviour change desired, the existing safety culture, current experience and expertise of the intended end users and the priority articulated by organisational leaders. Regardless, design and implementation must be based on a solid conceptual framework, consider the full life-cycle of the intervention (from conceptualisation to obsolescence) and employ human factors engineering and implementation science principles and tools.13ConclusionChecklists and other safety tools are potentially valuable tools to advance perioperative safety. However, when used in isolation or implemented incorrectly, checklists have significant limitations.

Safety initiatives that take a systems-oriented multimodal approach to design and implementation can, with organisational leadership and determination, produce both targeted and more general safety improvement.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required.Many patients admitted to hospital require venous access to infuse medications and fluids. The most commonly used device, the peripheral venous catheter, ranges from 2.5 to 4.5 cm in length, and is typically used for less than 5 days. The midline, a relatively newer peripheral venous catheter, is up to 20 cm in length, but does not reach the central veins, and may be used for up to 2 weeks.

A peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) is a longer catheter that is placed in one of the arm veins and extends to reach the central veins. The PICC is used for longer periods of time compared with peripheral intravenous devices, and initially gained popularity as a convenient vascular access device used in the outpatient and home settings. Its premise has been to provide access that lasts for weeks, that is fairly safe and easily manageable.

Patients often require central venous access when hospitalised, with more than half of patients in intensive care, and up to 20% in those cared for in the non-intensive care wards.1 Common indications for PICC use in the acute care setting include the requirement for multiple and frequent infusions (eg, antibiotics, parenteral nutrition), the administration of medications incompatible with peripheral infusion, invasive haemodynamic monitoring in critically ill patients, very poor venous access and frequent need for blood draws.2 Specially trained healthcare workers place PICCs, often nurses from a vascular access team (VAT), or interventional radiologists. The VAT is comprised of skilled nurses, with either medical/surgical, emergency department or intensive care unit backgrounds. Contrary to other healthcare workers that place PICCs, the VAT’s primary function is to place PICCs, and optimise the infusion delivery, through a safe and effective process.

Its scope includes assessment for need, peripheral and central device insertion, monitoring of use and removal.3In their study of five hospitals within the Veterans Administration (VA) healthcare systems in the USA, Krein et al4 underscore the importance of a formal VAT to formulate and implement explicit appropriateness criteria, ensure timely insertion and safe management and direct patient education around PICC use. They found that team structures supporting line placement vary across hospitals from a dedicated team, to individual nurses trained in placement, to hospitals where only interventional radiologists insert PICCs. The presence of a VAT was associated with more defined criteria for PICC use, but a recurrent theme was inadequate interdisciplinary dialogue.

Although qualitative data were gathered at five VA hospitals only, the study’s findings reflect the variation in PICC placement and use, whether in academic or community, small or large hospitals.An important factor in variation in the approach to PICC line placement and management is the availability of resources and expertise at the hospital site. For example, if healthcare workers have suboptimal skills to place peripheral venous catheters, including midlines,5 clinicians may resort to ordering more PICCs unnecessarily to fill that void. Furthermore, as revealed in Krein’s study, a hospital that does not have the expertise to learn about alternative devices, such as those with lower risks and shorter dwell times (eg, midlines), may resort to using more PICCs than necessary.

Similarly, hospitals without clinicians skilled or comfortable placing other central lines6 may rely more on using PICCs. In addition, the lack of an available VAT to place PICCs using uasound guidance may result in more referrals to interventional radiology for placement, potentially exposing the patient to avoidable radiation during fluoroscopy.7We propose an approach to improve the appropriate and safe use of PICCs by focusing on three elements that address the findings by Krein and colleagues. Establishing a structure powered by a VAT.

Anchoring a standardised process for line selection, insertion and care. And promoting adoption by engagement with the key stakeholders.Establishing a structure to support placement and management of PICCs depends on whether the number of devices placed is enough to support the creation of a dedicated vascular access programme. Leadership plays a critical role to invest the resources for a functional VAT, understanding the financial and quality benefits associated.8 Not realising its value, hospital leaders may view the VAT as a non-revenue-generating service, putting it at risk when considering cost reduction strategies.

The value of the VAT expands from mitigating preventable events (eg, deep venous thrombosis, ) to enhancing patient experience (eg, less attempts to place a peripheral device).9 In addition, better outcomes help curb the financial risks (eg, hospital-acquired condition penalties)8 and improve hospital ratings. The VAT’s role encompasses placing PICCs and guaranteeing the proper selection of the intravascular device and its appropriate use.2The second element involves standardising processes for line selection and care, regardless of who is taking care of the device. Implementing policies to address indications, placement and maintenance and using standardised kits help minimise variation.

The creation of policies should be achieved through a multidisciplinary approach with VAT, nurses and physicians. The VAT can act as the ‘gate keeper’ evaluating whether the reason for PICC placement is aligned with indications. In addition, the VAT plays a critical role supporting nurses’ competencies for venous catheter use (eg, aseptic access and maintenance, addressing complications and mitigating risk)10 to reduce mechanical11 and infectious complications.12 The VAT performs regular rounds to mitigate process gaps (eg, dressing site intactness) and to identify complications (eg, PICC site erythema or drainage, arm swelling), and provides timely feedback on clinical performance.

The VAT can also serve as subject matter experts to the ordering physicians for the appropriate device type, based on vessel size and indications for use, how many lumens, site selection and a de-escalation plan for the patient prior to discharge. It also provides services should a device-related complication occur (eg, clotting), and works with clinicians to remedy the issue and salvage the device, thereby preventing a patient from losing their vascular access and/or having to replace it.The last element, and perhaps most significant, is to enhance the adoption of best practices through a partnership with the key stakeholders. PICC-associated outcomes are not only owned by the VAT, rather it is the responsibility of the clinicians, physicians and nurses to achieve those goals (table 1).

Physicians are an essential stakeholder group to engage as they are the ones responsible for ordering the PICC. An identified physician champion who partners and empowers the VAT will help resolve any barriers and be a liaison with the local physician community.13 The ideal physician champion should have the respect of peers, understand process optimisation and promote quality improvement. They need to be well versed on the appropriate indications for PICC use, the associated complications and risks and alternatives to the device.

The physician champion engages the leaders of the key disciplines responsible for requesting a PICC, educating them on the appropriate indications for use, the outcomes associated with PICC use, inviting them to be partners and responding to any of their concerns.View this table:Table 1 Disciplines and their support to mitigate PICC harmWhat about the key physician disciplines to engage?. Physicians can play an active role in enhancing PICC use through avoiding the unnecessary use of infusions. The consultation of infectious diseases specialists for intravenous antibiotic use appropriateness has been associated with less PICC use and lower complications.14 Similarly, having a surgeon support the decision for whether enteral or parenteral nutrition is needed will help reduce unnecessary device use.15 Disciplines like hospitalists or general internists care for a large number of patients and often order PICCs for venous access,16 while nephrologists may advocate avoiding the use of PICCs in the chronic kidney disease population in an effort for vein preservation.17 In hospitals with teaching programmes, the VAT and its physician champion may educate physicians in training on device choice, placement and duration of use, and address with their faculty competencies for line management.18 Engaging these disciplines, elucidating the indications for appropriate use and providing feedback and local data on the potential harm ensure accountability and further attention to PICC safety.In summary, the PICC is one of the primary solutions to achieve vascular access.

With up to one in five patients at risk for developing complications,19 it is incumbent on us to ensure that these devices are properly used and maintained. Identifying and overcoming system barriers are key to delivering sustainable safe outcomes. As a first step, clinical and administrative leaders, realising the financial and quality benefits, need to support the structure reflected by the VAT to enhance PICC care.

Second, the VAT must partner with disciplines (particularly nursing) to promote and ensure adequate competencies for placement and maintenance. Finally, clinical disciplines caring for the patient should instil a collaborative environment for better decision-making on when central access is required, and what device provides the safest and most effective delivery of care.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required..

Kamagra thailand price

Joyce Hanson kamagra thailand price http://www.em-pfulgriesheim.ac-strasbourg.fr/?page_id=3086 was thrilled when she heard Gov. Gavin Newsom announce Jan. 13 that Californians age 65 and older would be eligible to get vaccinated against kamagra thailand price erectile dysfunction treatment. s and hospitalizations had been surging in California, and Hanson knew a simple trip to the grocery store put her at greater risk of getting sick and dying.

Plus, she hadn’t seen her daughter in more than a year, so she immediately began making plans to visit her in the San Francisco Bay Area. €œI felt this huge weight lifted off my heart when the governor said me and my husband could get vaccinated,” said Hanson, 69, a San kamagra thailand price Bernardino resident and registered Democrat who voted for Newsom in 2018. Joyce Hanson, of San Bernardino, California, says she has not been able to set up vaccination appointments for herself and her husband, Jim, even though they are eligible. The two are pictured here during a 2018 trip to England.(Joyce Hanson) She jumped online to book an appointment, frantically searching San Bernardino city and county kamagra thailand price websites for openings.

Next she called pharmacies all over Southern California, then hospitals and her local health department. No luck. €œIt’s very frustrating,” said Hanson, who is among a growing number of Californians becoming disillusioned with Newsom — including some of his fellow Democrats — over California’s erratic vaccination rollout, which has been riddled with mixed kamagra thailand price messages, shifting priorities and poor communication. €œThe messaging hasn’t been very clear,” she said.

€œIf we’re not going to actually be able to get the treatment until March or April, I can deal with that, but just be honest and tell us that it’s not realistic yet.” Since October, Newsom has touted his administration’s readiness to vaccinate the state’s kamagra thailand price 40 million residents, while repeatedly assuring them that “hope is on the horizon.” He has vowed that California would lead the nation with a fair and efficient system of delivering treatments. Hope is on the horizon with a vaccination. We continue to accelerate our planning and preparedness for a safe and equitable treatment distribution.Newsom on Dec. 7, 2020 Instead, the situation has devolved into chaos and confusion, as vulnerable older people, teachers and others in essential industries scramble to find a kamagra thailand price treatment appointment — often without help or direction from state or local officials.

Newsom, who emerged as an early leader in the kamagra when he issued the nation’s first statewide stay-at-home order, is desperately trying to turn the situation around — and political strategists say he must do so quickly because his political future depends on it. He is facing a Republican-driven effort to recall him from office, with supporters gaining momentum from the treatment problems. Even some kamagra thailand price in his Democratic base are beginning to question his leadership. €œThis is not going well.

You just cannot kamagra thailand price have these kinds of disparities we’re seeing all over California. The governor has got to get control of this vaccination effort,” said Los Angeles-based Democratic strategist Garry South, who ran the gubernatorial campaigns of former Democratic Gov. Gray Davis, recalled by voters in 2003 and replaced by Republican Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger kamagra thailand price.

€œIf the vaccination process is not carried out smoothly and efficiently, a lot of voters will blame him, regardless of whether it’s actually his fault or not,” South said. €œPeople did not blame Gray Davis for starting the electricity crisis, but they did blame him for failing to solve the problem.” Recall organizers have until March 17 to gather the roughly 1.5 kamagra thailand price million valid signatures needed to put the question before voters. As of Jan. 6, the California secretary of state’s office had received nearly 724,000 signatures.

€œWe’re in a mad dash to get enough,” kamagra thailand price said Orrin Heatlie, a retired Yolo County Sheriff’s Department sergeant, who is leading the recall campaign. €œThe dark path to getting vaccinated is not why we started this, but the governor’s mishandling of it is causing real harm and has only furthered our momentum.” Newsom campaign spokesperson Dan Newman dismissed the recall effort as “expected background noise” and argued that Newsom is focused on ending the kamagra. €œHis obsessive and relentless focus is on vaccinations, and economic relief and recovery.” Newsom has enjoyed relatively high ratings, with 58% of Californians approving of his job performance, according to the latest job approval poll by the Public Policy Institute of California. That poll was conducted kamagra thailand price in October, before any erectile dysfunction treatments had been cleared for use.

While the governor cannot control the supply of treatment flowing to California — a major limiting factor in the state’s ability to distribute doses — he is leading the statewide vaccination strategy that was submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in October. €œWe have long been in the vaccination business,” Newsom boasted kamagra thailand price in a news conference on Oct. 19, saying California’s experience with mass vaccination campaigns has prepared it to undertake one now, complete with public service announcements, cutting-edge technology and state support for local efforts. €œJust consider — 19 million annual flu shots typically distributed here in the state of California.” Newsom’s treatment strategy mirrors his approach to the kamagra so far.

It hands primary responsibility for administering the treatment to the state’s 58 counties, which have different plans for kamagra thailand price who gets the shot first, how they will be notified when it’s their turn and where they will be vaccinated. We started this ‘Vaccinate All 58’ campaign recognizing that all Californians need to be included in this vaccination process and that we can’t leave folks behind.Newsom on Dec. 15, 2020 Chronically underfunded county health departments — which are drowning under other kamagra-related duties, such as erectile dysfunction treatment testing, contact tracing and enforcing kamagra thailand price local restrictions on businesses — have struggled to keep up with the additional responsibilities. In many cases, they have failed to communicate effectively with the public or provide treatments quickly and efficiently.

Dr. Phuong Luu, the health officer for Yuba and Sutter counties in rural Northern California, said overworked public kamagra thailand price health workers are spending an immense amount of time fielding phone calls from people demanding shots. €œIt’s an extreme amount of pressure,” she said. €œPeople are angry and they’re calling saying, ‘No, the governor said that I’m eligible kamagra thailand price.

Why aren’t you accommodating me?. €™â€ In the Bay Area’s suburban Contra Costa County, health officer Dr. Chris Farnitano said the county cannot accommodate everyone 65 and kamagra thailand price older. It is focusing on people 75 and up, and supplies are dwindling so quickly that officials can’t promise a timely second dose.

CA is significantly increasing our efforts to get treatments out. This week, we launched mass vaccination sites across the kamagra thailand price state.Today, we're announcing that Californians 65 and older are eligible to receive the treatment.#EndThekamagra pic.twitter.com/PtuJKx5VcH— Gavin Newsom (@GavinNewsom) January 13, 2021 California is consistently at the bottom nationally in percentage of shots administered, with about half of doses used as of Thursday, compared with 81.6% in West Virginia and 80.8% in North Dakota, according to an analysis of state and federal treatment data. Texas, the state closest to California in population, has administered 60% of its shots. Overall, 5.8% of Californians kamagra thailand price have received their first dose, compared with 6.8% of people nationally.

€œStates that rely heavily on counties have faced bigger challenges,” said Larry Levitt, executive vice president for health policy at KFF. €œThe more layers that this implementation has to pass through, the more challenging it seems to get.” (KHN, which produces California Healthline, is an editorially independent program of KFF.) A bipartisan group of 47 state legislators sent Newsom a letter this month blasting the vaccination chaos. €œWe are all aware of the kamagra thailand price limited number of treatments that have been made available to the states, but we believe that we need to plan for a more effective and efficient rollout,” they wrote. Newsom has acknowledged that he must remedy the situation, pledging on Jan.

6 to administer 1 million additional treatments kamagra thailand price in 10 days. He fell short on that promise but characterized the effort as a success, with 900,000 additional vaccinations administered by Jan. 15. This week, he released a plan to speed kamagra thailand price and centralize the vaccination distribution process by mid-February, and he unveiled a website called My Turn, which eventually will inform Californians when they are eligible and allow them to make appointments.

Widespread frustration is not unique to California. Nearly 60% of adults 65 and older in the U.S. Say they don’t know when or where they will get vaccinated, and nearly three-quarters of Americans say kamagra thailand price they’re either frustrated with the status of vaccinations or flat-out angry, according to a new KFF poll. But in California, that anger presents political difficulty for Newsom.

€œHe’s got more crises on his plate than any previous governor,” former governor kamagra thailand price Davis told California Healthline. €œAt the moment, people in California are upset, so accelerating the administration of those treatments should be the first, and most important, thing that every public elected official does every day.” Newsom may appear safe from a Republican-led effort in a state that votes overwhelmingly Democratic, but unlike aspects of the kamagra that have disproportionately hurt small-business owners or Black and Latino communities, the vaccination issue touches nearly all Californians. Scott Hunyadi, of San Dimas, California, works as a health care technology consultant. Hunyadi, a Democrat, says he is growing disillusioned kamagra thailand price by Gov.

Gavin Newsom, largely due to the botched vaccination rollout in California, and would consider voting for a Democratic challenger if the recall makes it on the ballot.(Scott Hunyadi) “Newsom’s handling of the crisis may not be what qualifies it for the ballot,” said Dan Schnur, who teaches political communication at the University of Southern California and the University of California-Berkeley. €œBut if the recall does qualify, how the vaccination kamagra thailand price process was handled is going to be the primary basis on which voters make their decision on whether to keep him in office or not.” Some voters say Newsom’s vaccination rollout shows it’s time for new political blood. €œYou hear him on the news saying we’re doing better and we see light at the end of the tunnel, but this isn’t going well,” said Scott Hunyadi, 31, of San Dimas, who voted for Newsom in 2018. €œI’d never vote for a Republican, but given the opportunity, I’d certainly vote to recall Newsom and install a better Democratic candidate if one was on the ballot.” Hanson, who still hasn’t found an appointment, places most of the blame on former President Donald Trump.

But she said Newsom has acted as kamagra thailand price a “cheerleader” for his administration rather than being honest about his missteps. €œI know he’s trying, but honestly, at this point, I’m so soured,” she said. €œThere’s no guarantee that anyone could do a better job, but I’d certainly look at a Democratic challenger if there was one.” This story was produced by KHN, which publishes California Healthline, an editorially independent service of the California Health Care kamagra thailand price Foundation. Angela Hart.

ahart@kff.org, @ahartreports Related Topics Contact Us Submit a Story TipA bag of Doritos, that’s all Princess wanted. Her mom calls her kamagra thailand price Princess, but her real name is Lindsey. She’s 17 and lives with her mom, Sandra, a nurse, outside Atlanta. On May 17, 2020, a Sunday, Lindsey decided she didn’t want breakfast.

She wanted kamagra thailand price Doritos. So she left home and walked to Family Dollar, taking her pants off on the way, while her mom followed on foot, talking to the police on her phone as they went. Lindsey has kamagra thailand price autism. It can be hard for her to communicate and navigate social situations.

She thrives on routine and gets special help at school. Or got help, before the erectile dysfunction kamagra closed schools and forced tens of millions of children kamagra thailand price to stay home. Sandra said that’s when their living hell started. €œIt’s like her brain kamagra thailand price was wired,” she said.

€œShe’d just put on her jacket, and she’s out the door. And I’m chasing her.” On May 17, Sandra chased her all the way to Family Dollar. Hours later, kamagra thailand price Lindsey was in jail, charged with assaulting her mom. (KHN and NPR are not using the family’s last name.) Lindsey is one of almost 3 million children in the U.S.

Who have a serious emotional or behavioral health condition. When the kamagra forced schools and doctors’ offices kamagra thailand price to close last spring, it also cut children off from the trained teachers and therapists who understand their needs. As a result, many, like Lindsey, spiraled into emergency rooms and even police custody. Federal data shows a nationwide surge of kids in mental health crisis during the kamagra — a surge that’s further kamagra thailand price taxing an already overstretched safety net.

€˜Take Her’ Even after schools closed, Lindsey continued to wake up early, get dressed and wait for the bus. When she realized it had stopped coming, Sandra said, her daughter just started walking out of the house, wandering, a few times a week. In those situations, Sandra did what many families in kamagra thailand price crisis report they’ve had to do since the kamagra began. Race through the short list of places she could call for help.

First, her state’s mental kamagra thailand price health crisis hotline. But they often put Sandra on hold. €œThis is ridiculous,” she said of the wait. €œIt’s supposed to be kamagra thailand price a crisis team.

But I’m on hold for 40, 50 minutes. And by the kamagra thailand price time you get on the phone, [the crisis] is done!. € Then there’s the local hospital’s emergency room, but Sandra said she had taken Lindsey there for previous crises and been told there isn’t much they can do. That’s why, on May 17, when Lindsey walked to Family Dollar in just a red T-shirt and underwear to get that bag of Doritos, Sandra called the last option on her list.

The police kamagra thailand price. Sandra arrived at the store before the police and paid for the chips. According to Sandra and police records, when an officer approached, Lindsey grew agitated and hit her mom on the back, hard. Sandra said she explained to the officer kamagra thailand price.

€œâ€˜She’s autistic. You know, kamagra thailand price I’m OK. I’m a nurse. I just need to take her home and give her her medication.'” Lindsey takes a mood stabilizer, but because she left home before breakfast, she hadn’t taken it that morning.

The officer asked if Sandra wanted to take her to kamagra thailand price the nearest hospital. The hospital wouldn’t be able to help Lindsey, Sandra said. It hadn’t kamagra thailand price before. €œThey already told me, ‘Ma’am, there’s nothing we can do.’ They just check her labs, it’s fine, and they ship her back home.

There’s nothing [the hospital] can do,” she recalled telling the officer. Sandra asked if the police could drive her daughter home so the teen could take her medication, kamagra thailand price but the officer said no, they couldn’t. The only other thing they could do, the officer said, was take Lindsey to jail for hitting her mom. €œI’ve tried everything,” Sandra said, exasperated.

She paced the parking lot, feeling hopeless, sad and kamagra thailand price out of options. Finally, in tears, she told the officers, “Take her.” Lindsey does not like to be touched and fought back when authorities tried to handcuff her. Several officers kamagra thailand price wrestled her to the ground. At that point, Sandra protested and said an officer threatened to arrest her, too, if she didn’t back away.

Lindsey was taken to jail, where she spent much of the night until Sandra was able to post bail. Clayton County Solicitor-General Charles Brooks denied that Sandra was threatened with arrest and said that while Lindsey’s case is still pending, his office “is working to ensure that the resolution in this matter kamagra thailand price involves a plan for medication compliance and not punitive action.” Sandra isn’t alone in her experience. Multiple families interviewed for this story reported similar experiences of calling in the police when a child was in crisis because caretakers didn’t feel they had any other option. €˜The Whole kamagra thailand price System Is Really Grinding to a Halt’ Roughly 6% of U.S.

Children ages 6 through 17 are living with serious emotional or behavioral difficulties, including children with autism, severe anxiety, depression and trauma-related mental health conditions. Many of these children depend on schools for access to vital therapies. When schools and doctors’ offices stopped providing in-person services last spring, kids were kamagra thailand price untethered from the people and supports they rely on. €œThe lack of in-person services is really detrimental,” said Dr.

Susan Duffy, a pediatrician and professor kamagra thailand price of emergency medicine at Brown University. Marjorie, a mother in Florida, said her 15-year-old son has suffered during these disruptions. He has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder, a condition marked by frequent and persistent hostility. Little things — like being asked to do schoolwork — kamagra thailand price can send him into a rage, leading to holes punched in walls, broken doors and violent threats.

(Marjorie asked that we not use the family’s last name or her son’s first name to protect her son’s privacy and future prospects.) The kamagra has shifted both school and her son’s therapy sessions online. But Marjorie said virtual therapy isn’t working because her son doesn’t focus well during sessions and tries to watch TV instead. Lately, she kamagra thailand price has simply been canceling them. €œI was paying for appointments and there was no therapeutic value,” Marjorie said.

The issues cut across socioeconomic lines — affecting families with private insurance, like Marjorie, as well as those who receive coverage through Medicaid, a federal-state kamagra thailand price program that provides health insurance to low-income people and those with disabilities. In the first few months of the kamagra, between March and May, children on Medicaid received 44% fewer outpatient mental health services — including therapy and in-home support — compared to the same time period in 2019, according to the Centers for Medicare &. Medicaid Services. That’s even kamagra thailand price after accounting for increased telehealth appointments.

And while the nation’s ERs have seen a decline in overall visits, there was a relative increase in mental health visits for kids in 2020 compared with 2019. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that, from April to October last year, hospitals across the kamagra thailand price U.S. Saw a 24% increase in the proportion of mental health emergency visits for children ages 5 to 11, and a 31% increase for children ages 12 to 17. €œProportionally, the number of mental health visits is far more significant than it has been in the past,” said Duffy.

€œNot only kamagra thailand price are we seeing more children, more children are being admitted” to inpatient care. That’s because there are fewer outpatient services now available to children, she said, and because the conditions of the children showing up at ERs “are more serious.” This crisis is not only making life harder for these kids and their families, but it’s also stressing the entire health care system. Child and adolescent psychiatrists working in hospitals around the country said children are increasingly “boarding” in emergency departments for days, waiting for inpatient admission to a regular hospital or psychiatric hospital. Before the kamagra, there was already a shortage of inpatient psychiatric beds for kamagra thailand price children, said Dr.

Christopher Bellonci, a child psychiatrist at Judge Baker Children’s Center in Boston. That shortage has only kamagra thailand price gotten worse as hospitals cut capacity to allow for more physical distancing within psychiatric units. €œThe whole system is really grinding to a halt at a time when we have unprecedented need,” Bellonci said. €˜A Signal That the Rest of Your System Doesn’t Work’ Psychiatrists on the front lines share the frustrations of parents struggling to find help for their children.

Part of the problem is kamagra thailand price there have never been enough psychiatrists and therapists trained to work with children, intervening in the early stages of their illness, said Dr. Jennifer Havens, a child psychiatrist at New York University. €œTons of people showing up in emergency kamagra thailand price rooms in bad shape is a signal that the rest of your system doesn’t work,” she said. Too often, Havens said, services aren’t available until children are older — and in crisis.

€œOften for people who don’t have access to services, we wait until they’re too big to be managed.” While the kamagra has made life harder for Marjorie and her son in Florida, she said it has always been difficult to find the support and care he needs. Last fall, he needed a psychiatric evaluation, but the nearest specialist who would accept her commercial insurance was 100 miles kamagra thailand price away, in Alabama. €œEven when you have the money or you have the insurance, it is still a travesty,” Marjorie said. €œYou cannot get help for these kids.” Parents kamagra thailand price are frustrated, and so are psychiatrists on the front lines.

Dr. C.J. Glawe, who leads the psychiatric crisis department at Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio, said that once a child is stabilized after a crisis it can kamagra thailand price be hard to explain to parents that they may not be able to find follow-up care anywhere near their home. €œEspecially when I can clearly tell you I know exactly what you need, I just can’t give it to you,” Glawe said.

€œIt’s demoralizing.” When states and communities fail to provide children the services they need to live at home, kids can deteriorate and even wind up in jail, like Lindsey. At that point, Glawe said, the cost and level of care required will be even higher, whether kamagra thailand price that’s hospitalization or long stays in residential treatment facilities. That’s exactly the scenario Sandra, Lindsey’s mom, is hoping to avoid for her Princess. €œFor me, as a kamagra thailand price nurse and as a provider, that will be the last thing for my daughter,” she said.

€œIt’s like [state and local leaders] leave it to the school and the parent to deal with, and they don’t care. And that’s the problem. It’s sad because, if I’m not here …” Her voice trailed off as tears welled kamagra thailand price. €œShe didn’t ask to have autism.” To help families like Sandra’s and Marjorie’s, advocates said, all levels of government need to invest in creating a mental health system that’s accessible to anyone who needs it.

But given that kamagra thailand price many states have seen their revenues drop due to the kamagra, there’s a concern services will instead be cut — at a time when the need has never been greater. This story is part of a reporting partnership that includes NPR, Illinois Public Media and Kaiser Health News. Related Topics Contact Us Submit a Story TipFlorida, Colorado and several New England states are moving ahead with efforts to import prescription drugs from Canada, a politically popular strategy greenlighted last year by President Donald Trump. But it’s unclear whether the Biden administration will proceed with Trump’s plan for states and the kamagra thailand price federal government to help Americans obtain lower-priced medications from Canada.

During the presidential campaign, Joe Biden expressed support for the concept, strongly opposed by the American pharmaceutical industry. Drugmakers argue it would undercut efforts to keep their medicines safe. The Pharmaceutical Research and kamagra thailand price Manufacturers of America, an industry trade group, filed suit in federal court in Washington, D.C., to stop the drug-purchasing initiatives in November. That followed the Trump administration’s final rule, issued in September, that cleared the way for states to seek federal approval for their importation programs.

Friday is the deadline for the government to respond to the kamagra thailand price suit, which could give the Biden administration a first opportunity to show where it stands on the issue. But the administration could also seek an extension from the court. Meanwhile, Florida and Colorado are moving to outsource their drug importation plans to private companies. Florida hired LifeScience Logistics, which stores prescription drugs in warehouses kamagra thailand price in Maryland, Texas and Indiana.

The state is paying the Dallas company as much as $39 million over 2½ years, according to the contract. That does not include the price of kamagra thailand price the drugs Florida is buying. LifeScience officials declined to comment. Florida’s agreement with LifeScience came last fall, just weeks after the state received no bids on a $30 million contract for the job.

Florida’s importation plan kamagra thailand price calls initially for the purchase of drugs for state agencies, including the Medicaid program and the corrections and health departments. Officials say the plan could save the state in its first year between $80 million and $150 million. Florida’s Medicaid budget kamagra thailand price exceeds $28 billion, with the federal government picking up about 62% of the cost. On Monday, the Colorado Department of Health Care Policy and Financing issued a request for companies to bid on its plan to import drugs from Canada.

Unlike Florida’s plan, Colorado’s would help individuals buy the medicines at their local pharmacy. Colorado also would give kamagra thailand price health insurance plans the option to include imported drugs in their benefit designs. Kim Bimestefer, executive director of Colorado’s Health Care Policy and Financing agency, said she is hopeful the Biden administration will allow importation plans to proceed. €œWe are optimistic,” she said.

Her agency’s analysis shows Colorado consumers can save an average of 61% off the price of many medications imported from kamagra thailand price Canada, she added. Prices are cheaper north of the border because Canada limits how much drugmakers can charge for medicines. The United States kamagra thailand price lets the free market determine drug prices. The Canadian government has said it would not allow the exportation of prescription drugs that would create or exacerbate a drug shortage.

Bimestefer said that her agency has spoken to officials at the Canadian consulate in Denver and that officials there are mainly concerned about shortages of generic drugs rather than brand-name drugs, which is what her state is most interested in importing since they are among the most costly medicines in the U.S. Colorado plans to choose a private company in Canada to export medications as well as kamagra thailand price a U.S. Importer. It hopes to have a program in operation by mid-2022 kamagra thailand price.

Other states working on importation are Vermont, New Hampshire and Maine. But skeptics say getting the programs off the ground is a long shot. They note Congress in 2003 passed a law to allow certain drugs to be imported from Canada — but only if the secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services kamagra thailand price agreed it could be done safely. HHS secretaries under Presidents George W.

Bush and Barack Obama refused to do that. But HHS Secretary kamagra thailand price Alex Azar gave the approval in September. Biden’s HHS nominee, Xavier Becerra, voted for the 2003 Canadian drug importation law when he was a member of Congress. HHS referred questions on the kamagra thailand price issue to the White House, which did not return calls for comment.

Trish Riley, executive director of the National Academy for State Health Policy, said states have worked hard to set up procedures to ensure drugs coming from Canada are as safe as those typically sold at local pharmacies. She noted that many drugs sold in the United States are already made overseas. She said the Biden administration could choose not to defend the importation rule in the PhRMA court case or ask for an extension to reply to kamagra thailand price the lawsuit. €œRight now, it’s murky,” she said of figuring out what the Biden team will do.

Ian Spatz, a senior adviser with consulting firm Manatt Health, questions how significant the savings could be under the plan, largely because of the hefty cost of setting up a program and running it over the objections of the kamagra thailand price pharmaceutical industry. Another obstacle is that some of the highest-priced drugs, such as insulin and other injectables, are excluded from drug importation. Spatz also doubts whether ongoing safety issues can be resolved to satisfy the new administration. €œThe Trump administration plan was merely to consider applications from kamagra thailand price states and that it was open for business,” he said.

€œWhether [HHS] will approve any applications in the current environment is highly uncertain.” Phil Galewitz. pgalewitz@kff.org, @philgalewitz Related Topics Contact Us Submit a Story Tip.

Joyce Hanson was thrilled when she buy chewable kamagra heard Gov. Gavin Newsom announce Jan. 13 that Californians age 65 and older would be eligible to get vaccinated against erectile dysfunction treatment buy chewable kamagra.

s and hospitalizations had been surging in California, and Hanson knew a simple trip to the grocery store put her at greater risk of getting sick and dying. Plus, she hadn’t seen her daughter in more than a year, so she immediately began making plans to visit her in the San Francisco Bay Area. €œI felt this huge weight lifted off my heart when the governor said me and my husband could get vaccinated,” said Hanson, 69, a San Bernardino resident and registered Democrat who voted for Newsom buy chewable kamagra in 2018.

Joyce Hanson, of San Bernardino, California, says she has not been able to set up vaccination appointments for herself and her husband, Jim, even though they are eligible. The two are pictured here during a 2018 trip to England.(Joyce Hanson) She jumped online to buy chewable kamagra book an appointment, frantically searching San Bernardino city and county websites for openings. Next she called pharmacies all over Southern California, then hospitals and her local health department.

No luck. €œIt’s very frustrating,” said Hanson, who is among a growing number of Californians becoming disillusioned with Newsom — including some of his fellow Democrats — over California’s erratic vaccination rollout, which buy chewable kamagra has been riddled with mixed messages, shifting priorities and poor communication. €œThe messaging hasn’t been very clear,” she said.

€œIf we’re not going to actually be able to get the treatment until March or April, buy chewable kamagra I can deal with that, but just be honest and tell us that it’s not realistic yet.” Since October, Newsom has touted his administration’s readiness to vaccinate the state’s 40 million residents, while repeatedly assuring them that “hope is on the horizon.” He has vowed that California would lead the nation with a fair and efficient system of delivering treatments. Hope is on the horizon with a vaccination. We continue to accelerate our planning and preparedness for a safe and equitable treatment distribution.Newsom on Dec.

7, 2020 Instead, the situation has devolved into chaos buy chewable kamagra and confusion, as vulnerable older people, teachers and others in essential industries scramble to find a treatment appointment — often without help or direction from state or local officials. Newsom, who emerged as an early leader in the kamagra when he issued the nation’s first statewide stay-at-home order, is desperately trying to turn the situation around — and political strategists say he must do so quickly because his political future depends on it. He is facing a Republican-driven effort to recall him from office, with supporters gaining momentum from the treatment problems.

Even some in buy chewable kamagra his Democratic base are beginning to question his leadership. €œThis is not going well. You just cannot have these kinds of disparities we’re seeing all buy chewable kamagra over California.

The governor has got to get control of this vaccination effort,” said Los Angeles-based Democratic strategist Garry South, who ran the gubernatorial campaigns of former Democratic Gov. Gray Davis, recalled by voters in 2003 and replaced by Republican Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger buy chewable kamagra.

€œIf the vaccination process is not carried out smoothly and efficiently, a lot of voters will blame him, regardless of whether it’s actually his fault or not,” South said. €œPeople did not blame Gray Davis for starting the electricity crisis, but they did blame him for failing to solve the problem.” Recall organizers have until March 17 to gather the roughly 1.5 buy chewable kamagra million valid signatures needed to put the question before voters. As of Jan.

6, the California secretary of state’s office had received nearly 724,000 signatures. €œWe’re in a mad dash to get enough,” said Orrin Heatlie, a retired Yolo County buy chewable kamagra Sheriff’s Department sergeant, who is leading the recall campaign. €œThe dark path to getting vaccinated is not why we started this, but the governor’s mishandling of it is causing real harm and has only furthered our momentum.” Newsom campaign spokesperson Dan Newman dismissed the recall effort as “expected background noise” and argued that Newsom is focused on ending the kamagra.

€œHis obsessive and relentless focus is on vaccinations, and economic relief and recovery.” Newsom has enjoyed relatively high ratings, with 58% of Californians approving of his job performance, according to the latest job approval poll by the Public Policy Institute of California. That poll was buy chewable kamagra conducted in October, before any erectile dysfunction treatments had been cleared for use. While the governor cannot control the supply of treatment flowing to California — a major limiting factor in the state’s ability to distribute doses — he is leading the statewide vaccination strategy that was submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in October.

€œWe have long been in the vaccination business,” Newsom boasted buy chewable kamagra in a news conference on Oct. 19, saying California’s experience with mass vaccination campaigns has prepared it to undertake one now, complete with public service announcements, cutting-edge technology and state support for local efforts. €œJust consider — 19 million annual flu shots typically distributed here in the state of California.” Newsom’s treatment strategy mirrors his approach to the kamagra so far.

It hands primary responsibility for administering the treatment to the state’s 58 counties, which have different buy chewable kamagra plans for who gets the shot first, how they will be notified when it’s their turn and where they will be vaccinated. We started this ‘Vaccinate All 58’ campaign recognizing that all Californians need to be included in this vaccination process and that we can’t leave folks behind.Newsom on Dec. 15, 2020 Chronically underfunded county health departments — which are drowning under other kamagra-related duties, such buy chewable kamagra as erectile dysfunction treatment testing, contact tracing and enforcing local restrictions on businesses — have struggled to keep up with the additional responsibilities.

In many cases, they have failed to communicate effectively with the public or provide treatments quickly and efficiently. Dr. Phuong Luu, the health officer for Yuba and Sutter counties in rural Northern California, said overworked public health workers are buy chewable kamagra spending an immense amount of time fielding phone calls from people demanding shots.

€œIt’s an extreme amount of pressure,” she said. €œPeople are angry and they’re calling saying, buy chewable kamagra ‘No, the governor said that I’m eligible. Why aren’t you accommodating me?.

€™â€ In the Bay Area’s suburban Contra Costa County, health officer Dr. Chris Farnitano said the county cannot accommodate buy chewable kamagra everyone 65 and older. It is focusing on people 75 and up, and supplies are dwindling so quickly that officials can’t promise a timely second dose.

CA is significantly increasing our efforts to get treatments out. This week, we launched mass vaccination sites across the state.Today, we're announcing that Californians 65 and older are eligible to receive the treatment.#EndThekamagra pic.twitter.com/PtuJKx5VcH— Gavin Newsom (@GavinNewsom) January 13, 2021 California is consistently at the bottom nationally in buy chewable kamagra percentage of shots administered, with about half of doses used as of Thursday, compared with 81.6% in West Virginia and 80.8% in North Dakota, according to an analysis of state and federal treatment data. Texas, the state closest to California in population, has administered 60% of its shots.

Overall, 5.8% buy chewable kamagra of Californians have received their first dose, compared with 6.8% of people nationally. €œStates that rely heavily on counties have faced bigger challenges,” said Larry Levitt, executive vice president for health policy at KFF. €œThe more layers that this implementation has to pass through, the more challenging it seems to get.” (KHN, which produces California Healthline, is an editorially independent program of KFF.) A bipartisan group of 47 state legislators sent Newsom a letter this month blasting the vaccination chaos.

€œWe are all aware of the limited number of treatments that have been made available to the states, but buy chewable kamagra we believe that we need to plan for a more effective and efficient rollout,” they wrote. Newsom has acknowledged that he must remedy the situation, pledging on Jan. 6 to administer 1 million buy chewable kamagra additional treatments in 10 days.

He fell short on that promise but characterized the effort as a success, with 900,000 additional vaccinations administered by Jan. 15. This week, he released a plan to speed and centralize the vaccination distribution process by mid-February, and he unveiled a website called My Turn, which eventually will inform Californians buy chewable kamagra when they are eligible and allow them to make appointments.

Widespread frustration is not unique to California. Nearly 60% of adults 65 and older in the U.S. Say they don’t know when or where they will get vaccinated, and nearly three-quarters of Americans say they’re buy chewable kamagra either frustrated with the status of vaccinations or flat-out angry, according to a new KFF poll.

But in California, that anger presents political difficulty for Newsom. €œHe’s got more crises on his plate than any previous buy chewable kamagra governor,” former governor Davis told California Healthline. €œAt the moment, people in California are upset, so accelerating the administration of those treatments should be the first, and most important, thing that every public elected official does every day.” Newsom may appear safe from a Republican-led effort in a state that votes overwhelmingly Democratic, but unlike aspects of the kamagra that have disproportionately hurt small-business owners or Black and Latino communities, the vaccination issue touches nearly all Californians.

Scott Hunyadi, of San Dimas, California, works as a health care technology consultant. Hunyadi, a Democrat, says he is growing disillusioned by Gov buy chewable kamagra. Gavin Newsom, largely due to the botched vaccination rollout in California, and would consider voting for a Democratic challenger if the recall makes it on the ballot.(Scott Hunyadi) “Newsom’s handling of the crisis may not be what qualifies it for the ballot,” said Dan Schnur, who teaches political communication at the University of Southern California and the University of California-Berkeley.

€œBut if the recall does qualify, how the vaccination process was handled is going to be buy chewable kamagra the primary basis on which voters make their decision on whether to keep him in office or not.” Some voters say Newsom’s vaccination rollout shows it’s time for new political blood. €œYou hear him on the news saying we’re doing better and we see light at the end of the tunnel, but this isn’t going well,” said Scott Hunyadi, 31, of San Dimas, who voted for Newsom in 2018. €œI’d never vote for a Republican, but given the opportunity, I’d certainly vote to recall Newsom and install a better Democratic candidate if one was on the ballot.” Hanson, who still hasn’t found an appointment, places most of the blame on former President Donald Trump.

But she said Newsom buy chewable kamagra has acted as a “cheerleader” for his administration rather than being honest about his missteps. €œI know he’s trying, but honestly, at this point, I’m so soured,” she said. €œThere’s no guarantee that anyone could do a buy chewable kamagra better job, but I’d certainly look at a Democratic challenger if there was one.” This story was produced by KHN, which publishes California Healthline, an editorially independent service of the California Health Care Foundation.

Angela Hart. ahart@kff.org, @ahartreports Related Topics Contact Us Submit a Story TipA bag of Doritos, that’s all Princess wanted. Her mom calls her Princess, but her buy chewable kamagra real name is Lindsey.

She’s 17 and lives with her mom, Sandra, a nurse, outside Atlanta. On May 17, 2020, a Sunday, Lindsey decided she didn’t want breakfast. She wanted buy chewable kamagra Doritos.

So she left home and walked to Family Dollar, taking her pants off on the way, while her mom followed on foot, talking to the police on her phone as they went. Lindsey has buy chewable kamagra autism. It can be hard for her to communicate and navigate social situations.

She thrives on routine and gets special help at school. Or got help, before the erectile dysfunction kamagra closed schools buy chewable kamagra and forced tens of millions of children to stay home. Sandra said that’s when their living hell started.

€œIt’s like her buy chewable kamagra brain was wired,” she said. €œShe’d just put on her jacket, and she’s out the door. And I’m chasing her.” On May 17, Sandra chased her all the way to Family Dollar.

Hours later, Lindsey was in jail, charged with assaulting buy chewable kamagra her mom. (KHN and NPR are not using the family’s last name.) Lindsey is one of almost 3 million children in the U.S. Who have a serious emotional or behavioral health condition.

When the kamagra forced schools buy chewable kamagra and doctors’ offices to close last spring, it also cut children off from the trained teachers and therapists who understand their needs. As a result, many, like Lindsey, spiraled into emergency rooms and even police custody. Federal data shows a nationwide surge of kids in mental health crisis during the kamagra — a surge that’s further taxing an already overstretched safety net buy chewable kamagra.

€˜Take Her’ Even after schools closed, Lindsey continued to wake up early, get dressed and wait for the bus. When she realized it had stopped coming, Sandra said, her daughter just started walking out of the house, wandering, a few times a week. In those situations, Sandra did what many families in crisis report they’ve had to do since the buy chewable kamagra kamagra began.

Race through the short list of places she could call for help. First, her state’s mental health crisis hotline buy chewable kamagra. But they often put Sandra on hold.

€œThis is ridiculous,” she said of the wait. €œIt’s supposed to be a crisis buy chewable kamagra team. But I’m on hold for 40, 50 minutes.

And by the time you get on the phone, [the buy chewable kamagra crisis] is done!. € Then there’s the local hospital’s emergency room, but Sandra said she had taken Lindsey there for previous crises and been told there isn’t much they can do. That’s why, on May 17, when Lindsey walked to Family Dollar in just a red T-shirt and underwear to get that bag of Doritos, Sandra called the last option on her list.

The police buy chewable kamagra. Sandra arrived at the store before the police and paid for the chips. According to Sandra and police records, when an officer approached, Lindsey grew agitated and hit her mom on the back, hard.

Sandra said she explained to the officer buy chewable kamagra. €œâ€˜She’s autistic. You know, buy chewable kamagra I’m OK.

I’m a nurse. I just need to take her home and give her her medication.'” Lindsey takes a mood stabilizer, but because she left home before breakfast, she hadn’t taken it that morning. The officer asked if Sandra wanted to take her to the nearest hospital buy chewable kamagra.

The hospital wouldn’t be able to help Lindsey, Sandra said. It hadn’t buy chewable kamagra before. €œThey already told me, ‘Ma’am, there’s nothing we can do.’ They just check her labs, it’s fine, and they ship her back home.

There’s nothing [the hospital] can do,” she recalled telling the officer. Sandra asked if the police could drive her daughter home so the teen could take her medication, but the officer said no, they buy chewable kamagra couldn’t. The only other thing they could do, the officer said, was take Lindsey to jail for hitting her mom.

€œI’ve tried everything,” Sandra said, exasperated. She paced the parking lot, feeling buy chewable kamagra hopeless, sad and out of options. Finally, in tears, she told the officers, “Take her.” Lindsey does not like to be touched and fought back when authorities tried to handcuff her.

Several officers wrestled her to the ground buy chewable kamagra. At that point, Sandra protested and said an officer threatened to arrest her, too, if she didn’t back away. Lindsey was taken to jail, where she spent much of the night until Sandra was able to post bail.

Clayton County Solicitor-General Charles Brooks denied that Sandra was threatened with arrest and said that while Lindsey’s case is still pending, his office “is buy chewable kamagra working to ensure that the resolution in this matter involves a plan for medication compliance and not punitive action.” Sandra isn’t alone in her experience. Multiple families interviewed for this story reported similar experiences of calling in the police when a child was in crisis because caretakers didn’t feel they had any other option. €˜The Whole System Is Really Grinding buy chewable kamagra to a Halt’ Roughly 6% of U.S.

Children ages 6 through 17 are living with serious emotional or behavioral difficulties, including children with autism, severe anxiety, depression and trauma-related mental health conditions. Many of these children depend on schools for access to vital therapies. When schools and doctors’ offices stopped providing in-person services last spring, buy chewable kamagra kids were untethered from the people and supports they rely on.

€œThe lack of in-person services is really detrimental,” said Dr. Susan Duffy, a pediatrician and professor of emergency medicine at Brown University buy chewable kamagra. Marjorie, a mother in Florida, said her 15-year-old son has suffered during these disruptions.

He has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder, a condition marked by frequent and persistent hostility. Little things — like being buy chewable kamagra asked to do schoolwork — can send him into a rage, leading to holes punched in walls, broken doors and violent threats. (Marjorie asked that we not use the family’s last name or her son’s first name to protect her son’s privacy and future prospects.) The kamagra has shifted both school and her son’s therapy sessions online.

But Marjorie said virtual therapy isn’t working because her son doesn’t focus well during sessions and tries to watch TV instead. Lately, she buy chewable kamagra has simply been canceling them. €œI was paying for appointments and there was no therapeutic value,” Marjorie said.

The issues cut across socioeconomic lines — affecting families with private insurance, like Marjorie, as well as those buy chewable kamagra who receive coverage through Medicaid, a federal-state program that provides health insurance to low-income people and those with disabilities. In the first few months of the kamagra, between March and May, children on Medicaid received 44% fewer outpatient mental health services — including therapy and in-home support — compared to the same time period in 2019, according to the Centers for Medicare &. Medicaid Services.

That’s even buy chewable kamagra after accounting for increased telehealth appointments. And while the nation’s ERs have seen a decline in overall visits, there was a relative increase in mental health visits for kids in 2020 compared with 2019. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention buy chewable kamagra found that, from April to October last year, hospitals across the U.S.

Saw a 24% increase in the proportion of mental health emergency visits for children ages 5 to 11, and a 31% increase for children ages 12 to 17. €œProportionally, the number of mental health visits is far more significant than it has been in the past,” said Duffy. €œNot only are we seeing more children, more children are buy chewable kamagra being admitted” to inpatient care.

That’s because there are fewer outpatient services now available to children, she said, and because the conditions of the children showing up at ERs “are more serious.” This crisis is not only making life harder for these kids and their families, but it’s also stressing the entire health care system. Child and adolescent psychiatrists working in hospitals around the country said children are increasingly “boarding” in emergency departments for days, waiting for inpatient admission to a regular hospital or psychiatric hospital. Before the kamagra, there was buy chewable kamagra already a shortage of inpatient psychiatric beds for children, said Dr.

Christopher Bellonci, a child psychiatrist at Judge Baker Children’s Center in Boston. That shortage has only gotten worse as hospitals cut capacity to allow for more physical distancing within psychiatric units buy chewable kamagra. €œThe whole system is really grinding to a halt at a time when we have unprecedented need,” Bellonci said.

€˜A Signal That the Rest of Your System Doesn’t Work’ Psychiatrists on the front lines share the frustrations of parents struggling to find help for their children. Part of the problem is there have buy chewable kamagra never been enough psychiatrists and therapists trained to work with children, intervening in the early stages of their illness, said Dr. Jennifer Havens, a child psychiatrist at New York University.

€œTons of people showing up in emergency rooms in bad shape is a signal that the rest buy chewable kamagra of your system doesn’t work,” she said. Too often, Havens said, services aren’t available until children are older — and in crisis. €œOften for people who don’t have access to services, we wait until they’re too big to be managed.” While the kamagra has made life harder for Marjorie and her son in Florida, she said it has always been difficult to find the support and care he needs.

Last fall, he needed a psychiatric evaluation, but the nearest buy chewable kamagra specialist who would accept her commercial insurance was 100 miles away, in Alabama. €œEven when you have the money or you have the insurance, it is still a travesty,” Marjorie said. €œYou cannot get help for these kids.” Parents are frustrated, buy chewable kamagra and so are psychiatrists on the front lines.

Dr. C.J. Glawe, who leads the psychiatric crisis department at Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio, said that once a child is stabilized after a buy chewable kamagra crisis it can be hard to explain to parents that they may not be able to find follow-up care anywhere near their home.

€œEspecially when I can clearly tell you I know exactly what you need, I just can’t give it to you,” Glawe said. €œIt’s demoralizing.” When states and communities fail to provide children the services they need to live at home, kids can deteriorate and even wind up in jail, like Lindsey. At that point, Glawe said, the cost and level of care required will be even higher, buy chewable kamagra whether that’s hospitalization or long stays in residential treatment facilities.

That’s exactly the scenario Sandra, Lindsey’s mom, is hoping to avoid for her Princess. €œFor me, as a nurse and as a provider, that buy chewable kamagra will be the last thing for my daughter,” she said. €œIt’s like [state and local leaders] leave it to the school and the parent to deal with, and they don’t care.

And that’s the problem. It’s sad because, if I’m buy chewable kamagra not here …” Her voice trailed off as tears welled. €œShe didn’t ask to have autism.” To help families like Sandra’s and Marjorie’s, advocates said, all levels of government need to invest in creating a mental health system that’s accessible to anyone who needs it.

But given that many states have seen their revenues drop due to the kamagra, there’s a concern services buy chewable kamagra will instead be cut — at a time when the need has never been greater. This story is part of a reporting partnership that includes NPR, Illinois Public Media and Kaiser Health News. Related Topics Contact Us Submit a Story TipFlorida, Colorado and several New England states are moving ahead with efforts to import prescription drugs from Canada, a politically popular strategy greenlighted last year by President Donald Trump.

But it’s unclear whether the buy chewable kamagra Biden administration will proceed with Trump’s plan for states and the federal government to help Americans obtain lower-priced medications from Canada. During the presidential campaign, Joe Biden expressed support for the concept, strongly opposed by the American pharmaceutical industry. Drugmakers argue it would undercut efforts to keep their medicines safe.

The Pharmaceutical buy chewable kamagra Research and Manufacturers of America, an industry trade group, filed suit in federal court in Washington, D.C., to stop the drug-purchasing initiatives in November. That followed the Trump administration’s final rule, issued in September, that cleared the way for states to seek federal approval for their importation programs. Friday is the buy chewable kamagra deadline for the government to respond to the suit, which could give the Biden administration a first opportunity to show where it stands on the issue.

But the administration could also seek an extension from the court. Meanwhile, Florida and Colorado are moving to outsource their drug importation plans to private companies. Florida hired LifeScience Logistics, buy chewable kamagra which stores prescription drugs in warehouses in Maryland, Texas and Indiana.

The state is paying the Dallas company as much as $39 million over 2½ years, according to the contract. That does not include the price buy chewable kamagra of the drugs Florida is buying. LifeScience officials declined to comment.

Florida’s agreement with LifeScience came last fall, just weeks after the state received no bids on a $30 million contract for the job. Florida’s importation buy chewable kamagra plan calls initially for the purchase of drugs for state agencies, including the Medicaid program and the corrections and health departments. Officials say the plan could save the state in its first year between $80 million and $150 million.

Florida’s Medicaid budget exceeds $28 billion, with the federal government picking buy chewable kamagra up about 62% of the cost. On Monday, the Colorado Department of Health Care Policy and Financing issued a request for companies to bid on its plan to import drugs from Canada. Unlike Florida’s plan, Colorado’s would help individuals buy the medicines at their local pharmacy.

Colorado also would give health insurance plans buy chewable kamagra the option to include imported drugs in their benefit designs. Kim Bimestefer, executive director of Colorado’s Health Care Policy and Financing agency, said she is hopeful the Biden administration will allow importation plans to proceed. €œWe are optimistic,” she said.

Her agency’s analysis shows Colorado consumers can save an average of 61% buy chewable kamagra off the price of many medications imported from Canada, she added. Prices are cheaper north of the border because Canada limits how much drugmakers can charge for medicines. The United States lets the free buy chewable kamagra market determine drug prices.

The Canadian government has said it would not allow the exportation of prescription drugs that would create or exacerbate a drug shortage. Bimestefer said that her agency has spoken to officials at the Canadian consulate in Denver and that officials there are mainly concerned about shortages of generic drugs rather than brand-name drugs, which is what her state is most interested in importing since they are among the most costly medicines in the U.S. Colorado plans to choose a private company in Canada to export medications as well as buy chewable kamagra a U.S.

Importer. It hopes to have a program in operation by mid-2022 buy chewable kamagra. Other states working on importation are Vermont, New Hampshire and Maine.

But skeptics say getting the programs off the ground is a long shot. They note buy chewable kamagra Congress in 2003 passed a law to allow certain drugs to be imported from Canada — but only if the secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services agreed it could be done safely. HHS secretaries under Presidents George W.

Bush and Barack Obama refused to do that. But HHS Secretary Alex Azar gave the approval buy chewable kamagra in September. Biden’s HHS nominee, Xavier Becerra, voted for the 2003 Canadian drug importation law when he was a member of Congress.

HHS referred questions buy chewable kamagra on the issue to the White House, which did not return calls for comment. Trish Riley, executive director of the National Academy for State Health Policy, said states have worked hard to set up procedures to ensure drugs coming from Canada are as safe as those typically sold at local pharmacies. She noted that many drugs sold in the United States are already made overseas.

She said buy chewable kamagra the Biden administration could choose not to defend the importation rule in the PhRMA court case or ask for an extension to reply to the lawsuit. €œRight now, it’s murky,” she said of figuring out what the Biden team will do. Ian Spatz, a senior adviser with consulting firm Manatt Health, questions buy chewable kamagra how significant the savings could be under the plan, largely because of the hefty cost of setting up a program and running it over the objections of the pharmaceutical industry.

Another obstacle is that some of the highest-priced drugs, such as insulin and other injectables, are excluded from drug importation. Spatz also doubts whether ongoing safety issues can be resolved to satisfy the new administration. €œThe Trump administration plan was buy chewable kamagra merely to consider applications from states and that it was open for business,” he said.

€œWhether [HHS] will approve any applications in the current environment is highly uncertain.” Phil Galewitz. pgalewitz@kff.org, @philgalewitz Related Topics Contact Us Submit a Story Tip.

Kamagra bestellen deutschland

IntroductionThe mammalian kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are microtubule and ATP-dependent molecular motors, which were first identified in 1985 as axonal transporters in squid and bovine brains.1 Forty-five different kinesin family member (KIF) genes were identified in the mouse genome so far, 44 kamagra bestellen deutschland http://cm-supply.com/buy-amoxil-without-prescription/ of which are present in the human genome. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequence homology between the human and the mouse genome led to the classification of KIF genes into 16 families, from kinesin-1 to kinesin-14B (figure 1).2 The first kinesins discovered belong to the kinesin-1 family (KIF5A, KIF5B and KIF5C), and they form a heterotetramer of two heavy chains and two light chains (KLC1-4).2 KIF genes encode KIFs, a specific class of motor proteins generating intracellular motility by driving directional transport of various cargoes such as organelles, protein complexes and mRNAs along the microtubule system.2 Studies using knockout mouse models by Hirokawa and colleagues significantly contributed to elucidate the roles of kinesins in mammalian physiology. Their role in transport is fundamental to cellular logistics and performance, and the molecular motors are not only effectors of signal transduction cascades but also transport and/or bind to important signal transduction molecules to actively modulate their function.3Phylogenetic tree of mammalian kinesin superfamily genes identified in the human (and mouse) genome and classified in 16 subfamilies (from kinesin 1 to 14B) (adapted from Hirokawa et al 3)." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 1 Phylogenetic tree of mammalian kinesin superfamily genes identified in the human (and mouse) genome and classified in 16 subfamilies (from kinesin 1 to 14B) (adapted from Hirokawa et al3).The first kinesins were observed in the context of axonal transport in neurons, and a novel disease entity of ‘motor–proteinopathy’ was proposed for the pathogenesis of axonal neuropathies in 2001.4 Due to their role in cellular membrane trafficking, however, kinesins are essential for the functioning of many polar kamagra bestellen deutschland cell types, such as neurons, epithelial cells, sperm cells or stem cells during organogenesis. Kinesins also play a fundamental role in cell-cycle dynamics, both during mitotic and meiotic processes. They regulate chromosomal condensation and alignment, spindle formation, cytokinesis and cell-cycle kamagra bestellen deutschland progression.5 It is estimated that about a dozen kinesins are involved in the cell cycle.

Among these, there is a specific subclass of chromokinesins (kinesin 4 and kinesin 10 family) which are able to bind chromosomes.6 Recently, KIFs were discovered to act as microtubule stabilisers (KIF26A and KIF21A) and depolymerisers (KIF2A and KIF2C), activities which are important for both cellular morphogenesis and mammalian development, playing a role in neuronal and axonal morphology and ciliogenesis.7Alterations in motor kinesins are leading to human disease by various pathological mechanisms, including cancer and multifactorial and monogenic disorders. Variants in 18 out of the 44 human KIF genes were identified to cause kamagra bestellen deutschland monogenic disorders, following different modes of Mendelian inheritance and associated with a wide spectrum of clinical signs. These range from lethal and multiple to isolated congenital anomalies—including birth defects potentially detectable in the foetal period by current prenatal imaging studies—to postnatally apparent neurodevelopmental disorders, intellectual disability and neurological conditions.We will review the current state of knowledge of the biological processes kinesins are involved in and discuss their emerging role in human disease, particularly in birth defects and congenital anomaly syndromes. Birth defects remain a leading cause of perinatal lethality in industrialised countries.8 Structural anomalies are recognised with increasing reliability during early pregnancy by the use of high-resolution ultrasound technologies, thus raising questions about diagnosis, aetiology, prognosis and recurrence risk, particularly in the presence of more than one anomaly, which most likely indicates a genetic aetiology. We identify recurrent phenotype patterns caused by alterations in KIF genes, and we outline the complexity of phenotype–genotype correlations mirroring the processes of intracellular microtubule-mediated transport and movement, in which kinesins play a kamagra bestellen deutschland fundamental role.

There are likely many more relationships between the clinical signs and the genetic variants to be identified in the future, and the functional network of kinesins and their role in human disease need to be further elucidated. We propose to introduce the term ‘kinesinopathies’ for this group of conditions, which are phenotypically and genetically overlapping and characterised by the functional impairment of kamagra bestellen deutschland a specific group of molecular motors. We hope that their systematic approach leads to a better recognition in clinical practice, as well as in genome-wide sequencing for diagnosis and research, and opens strategies for the future development of molecular therapies.KIF structureAll KIFs have a phylogenetically well-conserved motor domain head, consisting of an ATP-binding motif and a microtubule-binding domain. Depending on the kamagra bestellen deutschland position of the motor domain, kinesins can be subdivided into N-kinesins (amino-terminal motor domain), M-kinesins (middle-region motor domain) and C-kinesins (carboxy-terminal motor domain).2 Most kinesins belong to the N-kinesin subgroup, but members of the kinesin 13A family (figure 1) belong to the M-kinesin subtype, while KIF1C, KIF2C and KIF3C belong to the C- kinesin subfamily.3 Both N-kinesins and C-kinesins are responsible for plus end and minus end-directed motility, M-kinesins for depolymerisation of microtubules in tubulin molecules. However, there are a few exceptions to this categorisation.9 The motor domain head attaches to the neck, the coiled coil stalk and the tail.

The kinesins’ neck is family-specific and responsible for the direction of motility or regulation of activity. The coiled coil stalk and tail are involved in kinesin dimerisation and/or interactions with cargoes kamagra bestellen deutschland. Kinesins typically use scaffold proteins and adaptor proteins to bind their cargoes but can sometimes bind the cargo directly. Scaffolds and adaptors might also have regulatory roles in kinesin-driven intracellular transport, that is, recognising specific cargoes and regulating their loading and unloading.3Role of KIFs in physiology and diseaseThe application of genome-wide sequencing for gene identification in research or for clinical diagnostic purposes significantly contributes to the identification of KIF candidate kamagra bestellen deutschland genes. Genotype–phenotype correlations in KIF gene-related disorders, together with functional and animal studies, continue to elucidate the complex involvement of KIFs in human developmental pathways and disease.

Table 1 summarises the monogenic conditions caused by variants affecting the function of KIF genes.View this table:Table 1 Specific monogenic disorders caused by variants affecting the function of KIF genesView this table:Table 2 Summary of phenotypes and genotypes of KIF149 26 30 31The kinesins’ functions in physiological processes, however, are complex and still incompletely understood, but their role in cell-cycle progression and regulation, including both meiosis and mitosis, in kamagra bestellen deutschland intracellular trafficking, axonal transport, microtubule activity and ciliogenesis, is increasingly studied. Figure 2 summarises the clustering of KIF genes according to their functional roles and the phenotypical consequences as identified to date in 32 out of the 44 human kinesin genes.Assignment and clustering of KIF genes to various functions and relation to birth defect or monogenic phenotype groups. Detailed phenotypes are kamagra bestellen deutschland shown in tables 1 and 3. Cancer and multifactorial conditions are not included. CNS, central nervous system." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 2 Assignment and clustering of KIF genes to various functions and relation to birth defect or monogenic phenotype groups.

Detailed phenotypes are shown in kamagra bestellen deutschland tables 1 and 3. Cancer and multifactorial conditions are not included. CNS, central nervous system.Kinesins play kamagra bestellen deutschland a pivotal role during early development and organogenesis. Microcephaly is one of the most frequently associated clinical signs, mirroring a defect in the regulation of the final number of neurons during development.10KIF4A is a motor protein that translocates PRC1, a cytokinesis protein, to the ends of the spindle microtubules during mitosis, regulates the PARP1 activity in brain development and the survival of neurons, and is a member of the L1CAM recycling pathway. Variants in L1CAM cause X-linked isolated kamagra bestellen deutschland and syndromic hydrocephalus.

KIF4A was recently proposed as a candidate gene for hydrocephalus.11KIFs are involved in neuronal branching, and microtubule depolarisation, operated by KIF2A M-kinesin, was suggested to suppress collateral branch extension during brain development, leading to anomalies of cortical development, including agyria and pachygyria, subcortical band heterotopia and corpus callosum anomalies.12Functional disruption of KIF genes in knockout mice often results in embryonic lethality, for example, for Kif18A, Kif10, Kif3A, Kif3B and Kif5B,13–17 highlighting the importance of kinesins in embryonic and foetal development. A study on KIF16B demonstrated that microtubule-based trafficking is responsible for early development and stem cell survival.18 KIF26B is essential in kidney development, contributing to the adhesion of mesenchymal cells to the ureteric bud.3 KIF26A was suggested to play a role in enteric nervous system development, because knockout mice develop a megacolon and enteric nerve hypoplasia,19 and to negatively regulate nociceptive sensation.20A significant number of KIFs play a prominent role in ciliogenesis and cilia function. They regulate cilia length, ciliary assembly/disassembly and can have motile cilia-specific functions.21 Some KIFs, specifically found in primary cilia (PC), regulate the length of the axoneme and its disassembly when re-entering the cell cycle.KIF7, also a key component of the Hedgehog signalling pathway, is responsible for cilia length kamagra bestellen deutschland regulation through suppression of microtubule polymerisation.7 KIF7 variants cause hydrolethalus, acrocallosal, and Joubert and Al-Gazali-Bakalinova syndromes.22 Kif2A knockout mice have severe brain defects, and KIF2A variants in humans lead to microcephaly because of cell-cycle delay in cellular progenitors resulting from cilia disassembly defects. KIF24, belonging to the same kinesin 13 family, plays a role in both microtubule depolymerising activity and regulation of the early steps of ciliogenesis. Other PC-related KIFs recently identified are KIF5B, KIF1C and KIF13B, and a potential role in cilia was hypothesised for KIF11 and KIF14.KIF3 protein complex (KIF3A-KIF3B-KAP3 heterotetramer) is a molecular motor necessary for intraflagellar transport (IFT) but is also involved in ciliogenesis kamagra bestellen deutschland of motile cilia.

Kif3a-knockout or Kif3b-knockout mice are prenatally lethal, exhibiting anomalies similar to ciliopathy phenotypes, including the disturbance of left–right body determination.3KIF19A is localised at the tip of motile cilia and performs motor and microtubule-depolymerising activities during IFT. Kif19a-knockout mice present with hydrocephalus and female infertility, common signs in ciliary defects, due to abnormally elongated cilia with altered motility, not able to generate proper fluid flow.9Further KIFs, which may have kamagra bestellen deutschland specific roles in motile cilia, are KIF27, KIF9, KIF6 and KIF18B. Regarding the involvement of numerous KIFs in cilia-related processes, it is not surprising that many disorders caused by variants affecting KIF gene function are presenting with anomalies reminiscent of ciliopathies.Kinesin motors have a fundamental role in neuronal function, as they are responsible for the transport of synaptic vesicle precursors and transmitter receptors along axons and dendrites from the neuron body.3 Molecular motor activity as for KIF1A, KIF5 and KIF17 is important for higher brain functions, such as learning and memory through regulation of synaptic transmission.5 Dysfunction can be associated with intellectual disability and global developmental delay (table 1).Impaired function can also result in peripheral neuropathies (KIF5A, KLC2, KIF1A and KIF1B) and ocular motility disorders (KLC2 and KIF21A)23 24 when axon elongation in the peripheral nervous system and optic nerve is affected. KIF5A variants are associated with epileptic phenotypes both in humans and mice25 because the transport of neurotransmitter receptors is disturbed and inhibitory regulation is altered.Due to their role in cell-cycle regulation, kinesins are important in male spermatogenesis and female oogenesis. They are involved in all steps of spermatogenesis 26 and, based on previous animal studies, they may kamagra bestellen deutschland represent a potential target to treat male infertility.

In female meiosis, 13 KIF genes were studied in animal models. There is some evidence that kinesin expression is vulnerable to kamagra bestellen deutschland maternal ageing and environmental factors, such as oocyte cryopreservation and alcohol consumption. It may be promising to expand research in this field in order to clarify the mechanisms and factors contributing to oocyte quality decline.27Many kinesins were extensively studied in the fields of cancer development, progression and therapy. Deregulation of the mitotic kinesins by both overexpression and decreased expression causes cancer progression or can be a prognostic kamagra bestellen deutschland marker in various tumours.28 The cell-permeable small-molecule mitotic inhibitor monastrol was discovered in 199929 and was shown to arrest cells in mitosis by specifically inhibiting KIF11, a kinesin important for spindle bipolarity. The bipolar mitotic spindle is replaced by a monoastral microtubule array surrounded by a ring of chromosomes, which gave the inhibitor its name.

The mitotic spindle is now a well-known target of chemotherapy, and inhibitors kamagra bestellen deutschland of the mitotic kinesins KIF11, KIF10 and KIF1C are being studied for this purpose.28 30 The redundancy of some kinesins allows them to escape pharmacological inhibition. For example, in the absence of KIF10, KIF15 is able to replace all of its essential functions in spindle assembly. Cilia-related KIF7, KIF13B and KIF27 are involved in SHh signalling and may be a future target in cancer research.28Some kinesins confer susceptibility to a range of multifactorial, metabolic and neurodegenerative conditions. KIF13B contributes to the enhancement of endocytosis of kamagra bestellen deutschland low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 1 that is involved in the recognition and internalisation of LDL and factor VIII. Kif13b-knockout mice have hypercholesterolaemia and higher factor VIII serum levels.5 KIF12 is implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, protecting pancreatic β cells from the oxidative stress caused by nutritional excess.5 Variants in KIF1B or KIF21B confer susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (OMIM %612596, #126200).31 32 KIF5A was associated with Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (OMIM #617921).33 KIF3 complex and KIF17 were recently uncovered to be involved in schizophrenia.34 35 Further studies, however, are needed to clarify the precise role of KIFs in neurodegenerative processes and psychiatric conditions.KIF14 -related birth defects.

Lessons learntAdvances in next-generation sequencing kamagra bestellen deutschland technologies have revolutionised our understanding of Mendelian disorders, including birth defect phenotypes, by sequencing the coding genome (exome) or entire genome at an unprecedented resolution in a comparably short time span. The technology has been extensively used for gene identification approaches in research for many years, enabling unparalleled genotype–phenotype correlations and the definition of novel pathways of related genes and disorders at an accelerated pace, traditionally focusing on postnatal disorders. Filges and Friedman36 postulated that a number of novel disease genes causing birth defects could be identifiable through the investigation of lethal foetal phenotypes since they would represent the extreme end of allelic milder and viable postnatal phenotypes kamagra bestellen deutschland with less specific or recognisable anomaly patterns. Based on embryonically or perinatally lethal mouse models (www.informatics.jax.org and www.dmdd.org.uk), it is estimated that knockout variants in about 30% of human protein coding genes may present with a phenotype of early lethality. The identification of KIF14 loss of function variants in fetuses with a lethal multiple congenital anomaly syndrome and the subsequent description of the allelic postnatal viable phenotype and further functional characterisation of KIF14 in developmental processes are recent examples of how to study those embryonic lethal phenotypes in order to understand the role of genes for which little to nothing is known.Filges et al identified autosomal recessive compound heterozygous loss of function variants in KIF14 using family-based exome sequencing in a recurrent severe lethal phenotype (OMIM #616258).

It was the first human phenotype reported due to variants in the human KIF14 gene (figure 3).37 The two affected siblings presented with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), oligohydramnios, severe microcephaly, renal cystic dysplasia or agenesis, genital tract malformations (uterine hypoplasia and vaginal atresia), as well as cerebral and cerebellar hypoplasias kamagra bestellen deutschland with partial or total agenesis of the vermis, arhinencephaly, agenesis of occipital lobes/corpus callosum at second trimester ultrasound scan. Cross-species comparison to the laggard spontaneous mice mutant, characterised by homozygous variants of the Kif14 gene,38 confirmed a phenotypical overlap. An increased number of binucleated kamagra bestellen deutschland cells in the tissue histology of the two fetuses were in concordance with the key role of KIF14 during mitosis participating in chromosomes’ congression and alignment, as well as in cytokinesis39 and the observation of binucleated cells as a consequence of failed cytokinesis in mammalian KIF14 knockdown cells. During cytokinesis, PRC1 localises KIF14 at the central spindle and midbody, which in turn recruits citron rho-interacting kinase (CIT) to the midbody. CIT, in turn, kamagra bestellen deutschland acts as a negative regulator of KIF14 activity.

Knockdown of KIF14 in mammalian cells results in impaired localisation of CIT during mitosis.40Structure of KIF14 and summary of all published KIF14 variants affecting function.10 37 41 42 The N-terminal region (aa 1–356) is important for its interactions with PRC1 and the protein’s localisation at the central spindle and midbody. The kinesin motor domain (aa 358–701) is responsible for the microtubule-dependent ATPase activity. The FHA domain (aa 825–891) kamagra bestellen deutschland. Stalk and tail region (aa 891–1648) are necessary for the interaction with the protein CRIK (aa 901–1189, red diagonal lines). There are four additional coiled-coil domains (light blue-coloured areas).61 FHA, forkhead kamagra bestellen deutschland associated.

Aa, amino acid." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 3 Structure of KIF14 and summary of all published KIF14 variants affecting function.10 37 41 42 The N-terminal region (aa 1–356) is important for its interactions with PRC1 and the protein’s localisation at the central spindle and midbody. The kinesin motor domain kamagra bestellen deutschland (aa 358–701) is responsible for the microtubule-dependent ATPase activity. The FHA domain (aa 825–891). Stalk and tail kamagra bestellen deutschland region (aa 891–1648) are necessary for the interaction with the protein CRIK (aa 901–1189, red diagonal lines). There are four additional coiled-coil domains (light blue-coloured areas).61 FHA, forkhead associated.

Aa, amino acid.Filges et al pointed out that KIF14 should be considered a candidate gene for viable postnatal phenotypes, including isolated microcephaly.34 Additional individuals with autosomal recessive variants in KIF14 and isolated primary microcephaly were then described9 41 42 (table 2).Impaired cytokinesis, increased apoptosis and reduced cell motility were confirmed in cells from the described patients, pointing to a new cellular pathway in the pathogenesis of microcephaly.43 Apart from one case with small kidneys with increased echogenicity, none of these 18 patients had associated kidney anomalies. However, a targeted exome sequencing study in 204 unrelated patients with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) reported two more cases of renal anomalies, bilateral hypoplasia or agenesis, caused by KIF14 variants.44 Further nine cases had an associated kamagra bestellen deutschland renal phenotype, which ranged from bilateral renal agenesis to cystic or non-cystic renal hypodysplasia.42 Table 2 and figure 3 summarise KIF14 variants and the associated phenotypes. Loss of function variants more likely lead to multiple congenital anomalies, while hypomorphic variants result in a milder phenotype without renal involvement, although phenotype–genotype correlations remain preliminary for the time being.The phenotypical spectrum ranging from isolated primary microcephaly to congenital anomalies reminiscent of ciliopathy phenotypes suggested a complex role for KIF14 in developmental processes and raised a number of questions about the relationship between its established role in cell division and its possible function in ciliary pathways. Functional studies of absent KIF14 protein in kamagra bestellen deutschland the development of human foetal tissues and mutant zebrafish provided evidence for similarities and differences between mitotic events occurring during proliferation in the development of both brain and kidney.42 The observation that KIF14-stained midbodies accumulate within the lumen of the branch tips of ureteric buds in human foetal kidneys provided a key clue to better understand the mechanism through which the loss of KIF14 affects both brain and kidney development in humans. It was previously demonstrated that the secretion and accumulation of midbody remnants in the cerebrospinal fluid in mice during the early stages of brain development correspond to the amplification of neural progenitors.45 Kif14 mutant zebrafish phenotypes supported the hypothesis of a potential role for KIF14 in cilia.

In vitro and in vivo analyses suggested that loss of kif14 causes ciliary anomalies through an accumulation of mitotic cells in ciliated tissues but kamagra bestellen deutschland failed to establish a direct functional link.21 42 Further mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Overexpression of KIF14 in various types of tumours was suggested to be a possible prognostic marker and a potential target for therapeutic purposes.46Kinesinopathies in birth defect phenotypes. Recurrent themesIn the last few years, an increasing number of variants in KIF genes were described to cause isolated as well as multiple congenital anomalies. There is a huge variability of phenotypes caused by variants even within the same kamagra bestellen deutschland gene. However, we can identify recurrent clinical signs that should alert the clinician to suspect a KIF gene-related disorder and the molecular geneticist to include KIF genes in multigene-panel and genome-wide sequencing approaches.

This will become particularly relevant in prenatal and perinatal medicine, kamagra bestellen deutschland which focuses on the detection of structural anomalies in the fetus and the newborn by using ultrasound and MRI or autopsy when the outcome is lethal. We have summarised the predominant and recurrent structural anomalies in kinesinopathies reported so far that would likely become apparent during the foetal period in table 3 and the syndromic disorders in table 1.View this table:Table 3 KIF gene-related structural congenital anomalies recurrently described in prenatal phenotypesSupplemental materialConsistent with the kinesins’ role in the development of the central nervous system (CNS), brain anomalies of various degrees are a frequent clinical sign, particularly microcephaly, but include lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, thinned or agenesis of the corpus callosum, arhinencephaly, cerebral hypoplasia or atrophy, cerebellar hypoplasia or atrophy, brainstem hypoplasia and a molar tooth sign on brain imaging.12 22 37 44 47–51Primary microcephaly can be detected prenatally or at birth12 22 47 48 50 51 and can present as an isolated or syndromic condition as, for example, caused by variants in KIF149 or in KIF11 (microcephaly with or without chorioretinopathy, lymphoedema or mental retardation. OMIM #152950).48KIF7 variants were related to macrocephaly in the presence kamagra bestellen deutschland of congenital hydrocephalus (hydrolethalus syndrome LS2, OMIM # 614120). Isolated hydrocephalus was reported for KIF4A in a single case.11Foetal akinesia and arthrogryposis (KIF5C12, KIF1434 and KIF26B50) are likely secondary to the neurological compromise of the fetus but can also appear as an early sign of abnormal CNS development, which should prompt specialist CNS sonographic and MRI evaluation of the fetus.Further anomalies of the limbs include camptodactyly (KIF26B50), clubfoot (KIF1A51), rocker-bottom feet (KIF26B50) and congenital lymphoedema of the limbs (dorsa of feet, lower extremities and, rarely, hands) in cases with KIF11 gene mutations.48 In particular, KIF7 gene variants have been related to various anomalies of the hands (tapered fingers, fifth finger clinodactyly, brachydactyly, preaxial or postaxial polydactyly, bifid terminal phalanges of the thumbs, spindle-shaped fingers, clinodactyly and soft tissue webbing) and feet (toe syndactyly, preaxial or postaxial polydactyly, and duplicated halluces).22CAKUT and genital anomalies are reported in various kinesinopathies including renal agenesis or hypoplasia (KIF1437 and KIF1252), ureteral hypoplasia (KIF1437), congenital megabladder (KIF1252) and vesicoureteral reflux (KIF1252), uterine hypoplasia and vaginal atresia (KIF1437) and hypospadias and chordae (KIF16B49).IUGR is recurrently detected (KIF5C12, KIF1437, KIF1053, KIF1554 and KIF2A12) and is particularly relevant when occurring simultaneously with one of the other recurrent clinical signs, indicating a potential syndromic KIF-related disorder. Oligohydramnios or polyhydramnios is most likely secondary to a primary organ anomaly.There are a few kinesinopathy syndromes that have been specifically reported to be lethal, such as the ciliary phenotype (OMIM #616258), caused by variants in KIF1434, and hydrolethalus syndrome (OMIM #614120), caused by variants in KIF7.22 However, lethality is usually closely related to the specific major anomalies, and it can be hypothesised that such a lethal phenotype will exist for all KIF gene-related disorders.Developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures, and sensory and motor disturbances of the peripheral nervous system, as well as eye anomalies, such as microphthalmy, optic nerve pallor, fibrosis of extraocular muscles and chorioretinopathy, will escape detection in the foetal period but are reported in postnatal patients.Kinesin pathways in birth defectsFunctional studies of kinesins in birth defects are still sparse, and little is known about their networks and pathways.

In order to improve our understanding, we used the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA Qiagen, Redwood City, California, USA) to visualise and analyse the connections between the 13 kinesin kamagra bestellen deutschland motor proteins associated with structural congenital anomalies (KIF5C, KIF1A, KIF1BP, KIF14, KIF16B, KIF7, KIF4A, KIF11, KIF10, KIF26B, KIF12, KIF15 and KIF2A) and in up to 10 of each of their most significant downstream proteins. The connections are defined as protein–protein interactions, activation, regulation of binding, expression, localisation, phosphorylation, protein–RNA interactions, molecular cleavage, ubiquitination, protein–DNA interactions, inhibition, translocation and transcription. Figure 3 kamagra bestellen deutschland displays the results. We used the software Gephy55 to look for all possible interactions between all proteins of the network and also used the IPA data to retrieve the canonical pathways involved. Figure 4 and online supplementary material, table 4, kamagra bestellen deutschland summarise the results.

KIF7, KIF14 and KIF12 are located within the same network, and because of multiple connections between themselves and their downstream proteins, it is not surprising that they are all involved in kidney anomalies. IPA data are based on current publications and are therefore subject to bias because proteins that are most interconnected are kamagra bestellen deutschland also most probably those that have been more extensively studied. However, we consider the KIF genes coding for proteins seeming less important within the network to be strong candidates for future studies of human developmental disorders.IPA of the 13 kinesins known to be involved in birth defects with respect to their position in the cell. Proteins displayed on the right side of the figure, below the tag ‘other’, are those for which no subcellular location is known. Birth defect-related kinesins and their connection with kamagra bestellen deutschland each other are highlighted in green.

Light blue-coloured downstream proteins are those which are known to cause birth defects when altered. Yellow-coloured proteins are those involved in neurological disorders overlapping with the clinical kamagra bestellen deutschland features of kinesinopathies. The legend of the biological function associated with every molecule is displayed on the right. Path Designer by IPA kamagra bestellen deutschland was used for the figure design. IPA, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 4 IPA of the 13 kinesins known to be involved in birth defects with respect to their position in the cell.

Proteins displayed on the right side of the figure, below the tag ‘other’, are those for which no subcellular location is known. Birth defect-related kinesins and their connection with each other are highlighted in kamagra bestellen deutschland green. Light blue-coloured downstream proteins are those which are known to cause birth defects when altered. Yellow-coloured proteins are those involved in neurological disorders overlapping with the clinical kamagra bestellen deutschland features of kinesinopathies. The legend of the biological function associated with every molecule is displayed on the right.

Path Designer by IPA kamagra bestellen deutschland was used for the figure design. IPA, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis.Closing remarks and future perspectivesNovel KIF genes are increasingly identified, and there is a growing body of literature demonstrating the impact of kinesin dysfunction in human disease. We propose to introduce the term kinesinopathies for conditions caused by variants in KIF genes, since recurrent and common functional kamagra bestellen deutschland and phenotypical themes can be observed. In analogy to ciliopathies56 and rasopathies,57 the delineation of the clinical, genetic and functional hallmarks of kinesinopathies will be important to better recognise these conditions, to understand the pathomechanisms and to ultimately improve the clinical management of the patients. Previously, the unified view of the phenotype characteristics of ciliary dysfunction allowed a tremendous increase in awareness, both in clinic and research, and the further identification of yet unrecognised ciliary disorders and the genes and proteins involved in their pathogenesis.56Remarkable progress was achieved in assigning function to kinesins through their study in isolated and multiple congenital anomaly phenotypes.

They are kamagra bestellen deutschland one large superfamily of molecular motors out of three (kinesins, dyneins and myosins), which is of key importance in several fundamental cellular processes using microtubules as rails for directional anterograde intracellular transport, including its regulation and modulating signal transduction.5 Kinesin motors are most important for the movement of chromosomes along the spindles during chromosome segregation, regulation of spindle formation, cell division and cytokinesis. These essential and broad cellular functions are critical for many physiological processes such as neuronal function and survival, some ciliary functions and ciliogenesis, determination of the left/right asymmetry of our body and regulation of organogenesis, thus explaining the impact and emerging recognition of kinesins in embryonic and foetal development. Defects can result in neuropathies, higher kamagra bestellen deutschland brain functions and structural brain anomalies. Multiple congenital anomalies, including the kidney and urinary tract and limb anomalies, are repeatedly reported. Microcephaly, which is usually not associated with genes implicated in specific ciliary mechanisms, and CNS anomalies are the most recurrent clinical signs kamagra bestellen deutschland in both the prenatal and postnatal phenotypes described so far.

The discovery of the implication of KIF14 in microcephaly further suggested a possible novel role of other microcephaly proteins in cytokinesis. A number of syndromic kinesinopathies present, however, with phenotype patterns reminiscent of ciliopathies. So far, however, a direct functional impact was confirmed in only a few and could not be demonstrated, kamagra bestellen deutschland for example, for KIF14, despite an overlapping clinical pattern. In turn, ciliopathies are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of conditions themselves. Studying tissue and cell type-specific function and expression may help to further define the specific defects related to the individual aberrant kinesin.The pleiotropic nature of human kinesinopathies, however, is just kamagra bestellen deutschland emerging, but their study promises to provide important insights into human developmental pathways.

Seemingly unrelated clinical entities are highlighting a common theme. In a relatively short time span, monogenic KIF-related disorders were identified to present with often severe and lethal antenatal anomalies, with multiple or isolated congenital anomalies, neurodevelopmental and neurological disorders, or an increased susceptibility to multifactorial kamagra bestellen deutschland conditions. We focused on the emerging role of kinesins in structural congenital anomalies because, as illustrated for the KIF14 gene, great potential to decipher allelic viable phenotypes and developmental pathways lies in the study of these human knockout phenotypes at the severe end of the phenotypical spectrum. Knockout variants in about 30% of human protein coding genes in our genome may present with a phenotype of early lethality, and KIF genes seem to play an important role in such fundamental processes of human development. Identifying and characterising the variants, genes and phenotypes will extend our knowledge on early human development kamagra bestellen deutschland and pathomechanisms, and will ultimately also improve the clinical utility of genome-wide sequencing approaches for prenatal and postnatal application by our increased ability to interpret loss of function and hypomorphic variants alike.

Furthermore, kinesins were extensively studied in cancer research and therapeutic strategies targeting their specific functions, such as the example of monastrol and other inhibitors of the mitotic kinesins may be adopted in the future. There are likely many more kinesinopathies to be unravelled in the field of birth defects because of their pivotal role in cellular logistics, but their recognition in clinics and research will depend on our ability to identify and characterise the common clinical, molecular and functional themes of these disorders and to use them kamagra bestellen deutschland to improve our understanding of their disease mechanisms.IntroductionIntellectual disability (ID) affects about 3% of individuals worldwide and raises significant issues in terms of diagnostic, management and genetic counselling. The presence of pigmentation anomalies in a patient with ID represents helpful clinical clues in order to narrow the range of aetiological hypothesis. Hypomelanosis of Ito (HMI, MIM #300337) is an unspecific term encompassing a heterogeneous group of disorders characterised by cutaneous hypopigmented whorls and streaks along Blaschko’s kamagra bestellen deutschland lines and variable extracutaneous features affecting the musculoskeletal and nervous systems.1 The cutaneous pattern therefore represents a non-specific hallmark of mosaicism in these neurocutaneous conditions. Genetic mosaicism is due to postzygotic mutations, either chromosomal rearrangements or point mutations, whereas random X inactivation in females leads to functional mosaicism.2 Unravelling the molecular basis of pigmentary mosaicism (PM) is still a challenge due to clinical and genetic heterogeneity, technical difficulties in detecting mosaic mutations by classical sequencing approaches and the complexities of obtaining affected tissue.

As part of a collaborative group, we recently reported de novo mutations in exons 3 and 4 of transcription factor E3 (TFE3) as the cause for HMI in four unrelated individuals, including one male, as well as syndromic ID without pigmentary disorders in a female.3TFE3 belongs to the MITF family of mammalian basic helix–loop–helix zipper transcription factors, together with TFEB kamagra bestellen deutschland and TFEC. All four can form homodimers or heterodimers with each other.4 Embryonic expression of TFE3 orthologues Tfe3a and Tfe3b was demonstrated in the zebrafish in a wide range of tissues.5 TFE3 subcellular localisation plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular homeostasis and embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation. The phosphorylated TFE3 is retained in the cytoplasm, whereas dephosphorylated protein translocates to the nucleus to promote the transcription of target genes involved in lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy.6 TFE3 relocalisation to the nucleus is driven on various stressors, such as starvation,7 8 DNA damage,9 mitochondrial damage,10 Golgi stress11 and pathogens12 in an mTORC1-dependent manner, and oxidative stress13 or cadmium exposition14 in an mTORC1-independent manner. Moreover, lysosomal signalling-induced nucleocytoplasmic redistribution of TFE3 is essential to the regulation of ESC renewal.3 15 kamagra bestellen deutschland By restricting nuclear localisation and activity of Tfe3, lysosome activity, the tumour suppressor protein folliculin and the Ragulator protein complex enable the exit from pluripotency and therefore drive differentiation. Conversely, enforced nuclear Tfe3 enables ESCs to withstand differentiation.15 In humans, TFE3 mutations have long been known in cancer.

Gene fusions by translocations or other chromosomal rearragements involving TFE3 and five partner genes have indeed been reported to occur in kamagra bestellen deutschland a subset of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), referred to as ‘TFE-fusion RCC’, and, more rarely, to lung sarcoma and perivascular epithelioid cell tumours.16 Beyond these data on TFE3 function, by the report of a series of 17 individuals harbouring de novo mutations in exons 3 and 4 of TFE3, we emphasise their phenotype and bring additional clinical insight toward the recognition of this novel developmental disorder.ResultsWe describe a series of 17 patients carrying a de novo mutation in TFE3, 5 of them being previously published with limited clinical information.3 Twelve were females and five were males. Their age ranged from 12 months to 22 years. Five were referred for HMI, five for syndromic ID and five for kamagra bestellen deutschland suspicion of storage disorder.Clinical dataThe clinical features are summarised in table 1. Additional information can be found in online supplementary data 1.Supplemental materialView this table:Table 1 Clinical and molecular features of the 17 patients with an TFE3 mutationNeonatal course was remarkable for nine patients. History of jaundice, hepatomegaly or feeding difficulties was reported for three patients each, hypoglycaemia for two and cholestasis for one.

All these features were transient.Developmental delay, usually severe and noticeable from the first kamagra bestellen deutschland months of life, was a constant feature in all the individuals. Only 6 patients were able to walk at the time of the study, whereas 11 were still unable to walk. All patients were non-verbal, except for two older patients who could kamagra bestellen deutschland speak a few words. Neurological examination was abnormal in 12 individuals and consisted in truncal hypotonia, associated with lower limb spasticity (6 individuals) or ataxia (2 adults). Behavioural issues such as kamagra bestellen deutschland autistic features and sleeping disturbance were noted for 11 patients.

Eleven patients developed epilepsy, onset in the first decade and characterised as intractable in three of them. Brain MRI was normal in 10 individuals and abnormal in 6 patients (hydrocephaly, short corpus callosum, Dandy-Walker malformation, arachnoid cyst, periventricular white matter lesions, delayed myelination and cerebral atrophy). The sensory anomaly was congenital hearing loss (5 patients), and ophtalmological anomalies (10 patients) consisted of strabismus, hyperopia, retinal degeneration, depigmented macule on the iris, oculomotor apraxia or impaired vision of cortical origin.Facial dysmorphism shared among the patients consisted in coarseness, flat nasal bridge, short nose with anteverted nares, widely spaced eyes, almond-shaped eyes, thick lips, kamagra bestellen deutschland facial hypertrichosis, fleshy earlobe, and full and pink cheeks (figure 1). Twelve patients had pigmentation anomalies, located on Blaschko’s lines for 10 of them (figure 2). One was kamagra bestellen deutschland diagnosed at 4 years old with histiocytofibroma.

Moderate to severe postnatal growth retardation affected 10 patients, who had a length between −2.0 and −4.5 SD. Obesity affected 13 individuals kamagra bestellen deutschland. Skeletal anomalies were frequent (11 individuals) and consisted of flat or clubfeet, hyperlordosis, scoliosis, hip dislocation, limitation of elbow extension and genu valgum. Recurrent s of the upper airways were noted in kamagra bestellen deutschland five patients. One had a documented neutropenia.

Early-onset chronic interstitial lung disease was reported in two patients. Nail clubbing was noted in two individuals kamagra bestellen deutschland. Visceral malformations consisted of congenital heart defect (left ventricle dilatation, aortic insufficiency and patent ductus arteriosus) in three patients, umbilical hernia in three individuals, lateral semicircular canal dysplasia, posterior plagiocephaly, sleep apnoea syndrome, anteriorly displaced anus and hypospadias in one individual each.Facial phenotypes of seven patients. (A–C) Patient 5, aged 6 kamagra bestellen deutschland months (A,B) and 3 years (C). (D) Patient 8, aged 5 years.

(E,F) Patient 2, aged 5 and kamagra bestellen deutschland 20 years. (G–I) Patient 3, aged 1 year (G) and 3 years (H,I). (J,K) Patient 13, aged 22 years. (L–O) Patient 6, aged kamagra bestellen deutschland 8 months (L), 20 months (M) and 3 years (N,O). (P,Q) Patient 10 aged 22 years." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 1 Facial phenotypes of seven patients.

(A–C) Patient kamagra bestellen deutschland 5, aged 6 months (A,B) and 3 years (C). (D) Patient 8, aged 5 years. (E,F) Patient 2, aged 5 kamagra bestellen deutschland and 20 years. (G–I) Patient 3, aged 1 year (G) and 3 years (H,I). (J,K) Patient 13, aged 22 years.

(L–O) Patient 6, aged 8 months (L), 20 kamagra bestellen deutschland months (M) and 3 years (N,O). (P,Q) Patient 10 aged 22 years.Cutaneous features. (A) Patient kamagra bestellen deutschland 3. Umbilical hernia, widely spaced nipples and hypopigmentation on the left side of the abdomen. (B) Patient kamagra bestellen deutschland 17.

Hypotonia, umbilical hernia and widely spaced nipples. (C) Patient 8 kamagra bestellen deutschland. Blaschko’s lines on the back. (D) Patient 6. Hypopigmentation on the left side of kamagra bestellen deutschland the abdomen.

(E) Patient 7. Blaschko’s lines on the abdomen and right side of the kamagra bestellen deutschland trunk. (F) Patient 13. Hand. Note clubbing of thumbnail and loose skin.

(G) Patient 17. Blaschko’s lines on the left side of the abdomen. (H) Patient 17. Hand. Note tapering fingers and wrinkled skin.

(I) Patient 1. Linear hypopigmentation on the back. (J) Patient 6. Blaschko’s lines on the back. (K) Patient 3.

Blachko’s lines on the right lower limb. (L) Patient 6. Blaschko’s lines on the right lower limb. (M,N) Patient 7. Linear hyperpigmentation on the lower limbs.

(O) Patient 11. Blaschko’s lines on the back." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 2 Cutaneous features. (A) Patient 3. Umbilical hernia, widely spaced nipples and hypopigmentation on the left side of the abdomen. (B) Patient 17.

Hypotonia, umbilical hernia and widely spaced nipples. (C) Patient 8. Blaschko’s lines on the back. (D) Patient 6. Hypopigmentation on the left side of the abdomen.

(E) Patient 7. Blaschko’s lines on the abdomen and right side of the trunk. (F) Patient 13. Hand. Note clubbing of thumbnail and loose skin.

(G) Patient 17. Blaschko’s lines on the left side of the abdomen. (H) Patient 17. Hand. Note tapering fingers and wrinkled skin.

(I) Patient 1. Linear hypopigmentation on the back. (J) Patient 6. Blaschko’s lines on the back. (K) Patient 3.

Blachko’s lines on the right lower limb. (L) Patient 6. Blaschko’s lines on the right lower limb. (M,N) Patient 7. Linear hyperpigmentation on the lower limbs.

(O) Patient 11. Blaschko’s lines on the back.Molecular resultsThe characteristics of the 13 different de novo TFE3 variants identified in the 17 unrelated individuals are summarised in table 2. All but one were missense variants, affecting nine different aminoacids. One was a splice donor mutation. This mutation was reported a few weeks ago in a patient with a similar phenotype.21 Two variants were localised in exon 3 and 11 in exon 4 (figure 3).

All were absent from public databases and were predicted to be pathogenic by prediction softwares. TFE3 protein and localisation of the missense variants identified. In bold are variants identified in two patients. In bold and underlined is the variant identified in three patients. In green is the intronic variant." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 3 TFE3 protein and localisation of the missense variants identified.

In bold are variants identified in two patients. In bold and underlined is the variant identified in three patients. In green is the intronic variant.View this table:Table 2 Molecular data of the 13 de novo TFE3 mutations. Characteristics, inheritance, frequency in the public database GnomAD, prediction scores regarding pathogenicity (Polyphen, Grantham and CADD (Combined Annotation Dependant Depletion) scores). The transcript is NM_006521.5The putative mosaicism was assessed through X inactivation studies in females and analysis of the exome sequencing data in males, by checking the total number of reads covering the variant, as well as the number of reads supporting the presence of the variant (table 1).

Allele frequencies in females were always consistent with a constitutional heterozygous mutation. X inactivation was skewed in blood of the female patients 1, 3 and 7 and in fibroblasts of Patient 2. X inactivation was random in fibroblasts of Patient 1 and 3. Regarding the male patients, the mutation was identified in 65% of the reads for Patient 17% and 88% of the reads for Patient 15 (106/120). No mosaicism was detected in the blood of Patient 13, 14 and 16 despite the presence of pigmentary manifestations in Patient 16.DiscussionTFE3 functions in signalling of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1).

The PIK3-AKT-mTOR pathway plays a role in the regulation of cellular growth, proliferation, survival and metabolism. Overactivation of the mTOR signalling is responsible for neurocutaneous disorders and cancers.22 Somatic mutations in TSC1, TSC2, AKT3, PIK3CA and MTOR are responsible for focal cortical dysplasia type II (MIM607341),23–25 hemimegalencephaly26 and megalencephaly.27 The phenotype ascribed to germline TSC1/TSC2, PTEN, MTOR and PK3R2/AKT3/CCND2 mutations – respectively in tuberous sclerosis (TS, MIM 191100), Cowden syndrome (CS, MIM 158350), Smith-Kingsmore syndrome (MIM 616638) and Megalencephaly, Polymicrogyria, Polydactyly and Hydrocephalus syndrome 1, 2 and 3 (MPPH1/2/3, MIM 603387/615939/615938) - is characterised by the association of ID, epilepsy, brain malformations and skin tumours. Similarly, all the individuals harbouring a de novo TFE3 mutation reported in the series presented with a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. Delayed psychomotor development was constant. The youngest patient to acquire independent walking was 30 months old, and more than half of the patients aged over 18 months (57%), did not acquire walk at the last examination.

Conversely to patients with MTOR, AKT3 or PTEN mutation, none of the patients described in this series had macrocephaly. Brain imaging was abnormal in 35% of the patients. Hydrocephaly and corpus callosum dysgenesis, identified in respectively three and one individual, were previously reported in patients with mosaic gain of function MTOR mutations.28 29 One patient had surgery to remove an early-onset histiocytofibroma. However, no other skin tumour was reported, either in this patient or in any other from the series.Pigmentation anomalies, along Blaschko’s lines or, for one patient, as a large hyperpigmented area, were present in a majority of the individuals (71%) in the series, including 40% of the males and 83% of the females. PM along Blaschko’s lines is highly suggestive of genetic mosaicism.30 Genomic mosaicism is defined by the presence of at least two cell populations with different genotypes in an individual originating from one zygote and mainly occurs through post-zygotic event, whereas females can present with functional (epigenetics) mosaicism due to X inactivation.2 PM is a classical feature of X-linked male-lethal genodermatosis, such as incontinentia pigmenti (IP, MIM #308300), focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH, MIM #305600), chondrodysplasia punctuata type 2 (Conradi-Hunermann-Happle syndrome, CDPX2, MIM #302960) and linear skin defects with multiple congenital anomalies (LSDMCA1, MIM #309801).

In these conditions, the overwhelming predominance of affected females is a consequence of the male lethality, and the PM a manifestation of the functional mosaicism occurring in females. Similarly, the majority of individuals with de novo TFE3 variants in our cohort were females (sex ratio female:male was 12:5 (2.4)). The study of X-inactivation on non-cultured fibroblasts was consistent with functional mosaicism in two affected females with PM who harboured random X-inactivation, whereas a third female without PM had skewed X-inactivation. In IP, FDH and CDPX2, most hemizygous males die in utero. However, there have been reports of surviving males 31–33 with an estimated prevalence around 10% in FDH and IP.32 34 The majority of them are explained by post-zygotic mutations or chromosomal anomalies (Klinefelter syndrome).

Non-mosaic males have also been reported in FDH and IP – respectively about 17% and 45% of the affected males harbour a non-mosaic variant.32 35 In our series, males represented 29% of the patients with a de novo TFE3 variant. A mosaic variant was identified in blood for half of them. None had Klinefelter syndrome. Interestingly, mosaicism was detected in only one out of the two males with PM, and one male with a mosaic variant had no pigmentation anomalies noted on examination. It is still possible that subtle pigmentation anomalies were missed on examination.

Moreover, somatic mosaicism can be difficult to detect. Recent studies have shown that a large proportion of de novo mutations presumed to be germline had in fact occurred as post-zygotic event.36 In the males of this cohort, WES was performed on leucocytes-derived DNA and no other tissue was studied. Therefore, it is possible that a low mosaicism was not detected. Finally, it is probable than TFE3 mutations account for a significant proportion of patients with HMI. Indeed, in this population, the high frequency of ID, epilepsy, coarse facial features has long been emphasised in the literature.37By its ability to bind the coordinated lysosomal enhancement and regulation (CLEAR) sites in the promotor region of target genes, TFE3 is involved in the control lysosomal biogenesis, autophagy and endocytosis.8 Several patients of the series indeed had clinical and biochemical features that pointed toward an inborn error of metabolism.

Lysosomal storage disorder was suspected due to the variable association of coarse facial features (88%), skeletal anomalies (65%) –flat or clubfeet, hyperlordosis, hip dislocation, limitation of elbow extension, genu valgum, scoliosis–, postnatal growth retardation (59%), history of speech or developmental regression (29%) congenital hearing loss (29%), recurrent upper airways s (29%) neonatal liver anomalies such as hepatomegaly and cholestasis (18%), upper airways s (24%), umbilical hernia (18%), sleep apnoea syndrome (6%) and aortic insufficiency (6%). Other metabolic anomalies observed in the series were obesity, defined in children by body mass index (BMI) (weight/height2) above the WHO curve, present in the oldest patients (76%), neonatal transient hypoglycaemia (12%), and hyperlactataemia (6%). Dysregulation of lipid metabolism, via suppression of thermogenesis and decreased lipolysis, thus leading to increased adipose tissue, was previously observed in adipose-specific TFE3 transgenic mice.38 Similarly to lysosomes, mitochondrias have a key role in cellular metabolism, including autophagy. Recent data demonstrate that mitochondrial and lysosomal metabolisms are interrelated.39 Muscle biopsy, performed in two individuals from this cohort, showed fat and glycogen accumulation, muscular fibre size irregularity, without evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction. Interestingly in the more recent data, evidences showing that TFE3 plays a role in the regulation of the circadian oscillations of the expression of genes involved in autophagy and lipid metabolism, and that Tfe3 knock-out mice had abnormal circadian behaviour.40 Indeed, in our series, five patients (29%) were noted to have sleep disturbance.

This could be due to circadian rhythms alteration. Finally, TFE3 has been shown to be involved in the regulation of innate immune response in macrophages via the FLCN-AMPK signalling axis,41 and of B-lymphocytes activation.42 Along these lines, four patients of the series (24%) had a history of recurrent s, associated with documented neutropenia in one of them. As shown in table 3, a summary of the frequency of the features observed in the cohort, facial dysmorphism was constant and strikingly similar among the patients. More than two-third had anteverted nares, broad flat nasal bridge, almond-shaped and widely spaced eyes, puffy cheeks and coarse facial features (thick lips and fleshy earlobes). More than half had facial hypertrichosis.

All individuals presented with at least four of the above features. One patient had an extreme facial phenotype of hypertelorism, bifid nose and bilateral cleft lip and palate. Whether these frontonasal dysplasia features may be associated with the TFE3 mutation remains unclear. No other mutation in known genes was found in Patient 1’s exome sequencing data.View this table:Table 3 Frequency of the clinical features observed in the seriesTFE3 is a highly conserved protein, intolerant to loss of function as supported by data from the GnomAD browser43 (probability of being loss-of-function intolerant (pLI) evaluated at 0.98, observed:expected ratio=0.06) and to missense variants (Z=2.15). Moreover, TFE3 does not, or only in a few tissues, escape X inactivation, suggesting that TFE3 gene dosage is crucial to cell function.44 45 In vitro, Villegas et al recently showed that the absence of either TFE3 exon 3 or 4 resulted in a nuclear gain-of-function Tfe3 allele in ESCs, indicating that both exons 3 and 4 are required for Tfe3 inactivation.3 Nuclear localisation and resistance to differentiation were proved in Tfe3 knock-out (K.O.) ESCs expressing murine Tfe3 alleles (Gln118Pro and Pro185Leu, corresponding to mutations Gln119Pro and Pro186Leu identified in individuals referred to as patients 1 and 2 in this series).

Based on the analysis of TFE3 secondary structure,46 indicating that residues 110–215 are predicted to form a domain of two stable alpha helices that might be disrupted by mutations in exons 3 and 4, and the observation of a similar phenotype in patients harbouring mutations in exons 3 and 4, it was suggested that Tfe3 exons 3 and 4 form a Rag binding fold whose structural integrity is indispensable for lysosome-mediated cytoplasmic Tfe3 inactivation.3 In this series, the recurrent mutations Arg117Gln, Leu191Pro and Thr187Met were present in respectively two, two and three patients. The aminoacid in position 187 was mutated in five patients. In addition, 13 of the described mutations were localised between positions p.184 and p.201. This proximity could account for the absence of obvious genotype–phenotype correlation. The canonical splice site variant in intron 4 identified in patient 9 might lead to in-frame exon skipping of exon 4.

The clinical picture of the patient with this splice site variant perfectly fits with the syndrome described here. As a consequence, we raise the hypothesis of a gain-of-function effect of this variant.In conclusion, de novo mutations in exons 3 and 4 of the X-linked gene TFE3 are responsible for a neurocutaneous disorder with specific and recognisable facial dysmorphism, lysosomal storage disorder-like features and PM. This series unravels TFE3 as a major gene responsible for HMI and for a rare cause of syndromic ID. Furthermore, we provide clinical and molecular data on a previously unidentified lysosomal storage disorder, in which new insights, especially biochemical features, will probably be investigated further, together with the description of more patients. Further delineation of this phenotype will indeed allow a better understanding of the link between lysosomal signalling and development.

Finally, the evidence for mosaicism in this recently described disorder highlights the importance of considering mosaic variants on next-generation sequencing reports in diagnostic, including for patients without suggestive phenotype..

IntroductionThe mammalian kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are microtubule and ATP-dependent molecular buy chewable kamagra Buy amoxil without prescription motors, which were first identified in 1985 as axonal transporters in squid and bovine brains.1 Forty-five different kinesin family member (KIF) genes were identified in the mouse genome so far, 44 of which are present in the human genome. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequence homology between the human and the mouse genome led to the classification of KIF genes into 16 families, from kinesin-1 to kinesin-14B (figure 1).2 The first kinesins discovered belong to the kinesin-1 family (KIF5A, KIF5B and KIF5C), and they form a heterotetramer of two heavy chains and two light chains (KLC1-4).2 KIF genes encode KIFs, a specific class of motor proteins generating intracellular motility by driving directional transport of various cargoes such as organelles, protein complexes and mRNAs along the microtubule system.2 Studies using knockout mouse models by Hirokawa and colleagues significantly contributed to elucidate the roles of kinesins in mammalian physiology. Their role in transport is fundamental to cellular logistics and performance, and the molecular motors are not only effectors of signal transduction cascades but also transport and/or bind to important signal transduction molecules to actively modulate their function.3Phylogenetic tree of mammalian kinesin superfamily genes identified in the human (and mouse) genome and classified in 16 subfamilies (from kinesin 1 to 14B) (adapted from Hirokawa et al 3)." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 1 Phylogenetic tree of mammalian kinesin superfamily genes identified in the human (and mouse) genome and classified in 16 subfamilies (from kinesin 1 to 14B) (adapted from Hirokawa et al3).The first kinesins were observed in the context of buy chewable kamagra axonal transport in neurons, and a novel disease entity of ‘motor–proteinopathy’ was proposed for the pathogenesis of axonal neuropathies in 2001.4 Due to their role in cellular membrane trafficking, however, kinesins are essential for the functioning of many polar cell types, such as neurons, epithelial cells, sperm cells or stem cells during organogenesis. Kinesins also play a fundamental role in cell-cycle dynamics, both during mitotic and meiotic processes. They regulate chromosomal condensation and buy chewable kamagra alignment, spindle formation, cytokinesis and cell-cycle progression.5 It is estimated that about a dozen kinesins are involved in the cell cycle.

Among these, there is a specific subclass of chromokinesins (kinesin 4 and kinesin 10 family) which are able to bind chromosomes.6 Recently, KIFs were discovered to act as microtubule stabilisers (KIF26A and KIF21A) and depolymerisers (KIF2A and KIF2C), activities which are important for both cellular morphogenesis and mammalian development, playing a role in neuronal and axonal morphology and ciliogenesis.7Alterations in motor kinesins are leading to human disease by various pathological mechanisms, including cancer and multifactorial and monogenic disorders. Variants in 18 out of the 44 human KIF genes were identified to cause monogenic disorders, following different modes buy chewable kamagra of Mendelian inheritance and associated with a wide spectrum of clinical signs. These range from lethal and multiple to isolated congenital anomalies—including birth defects potentially detectable in the foetal period by current prenatal imaging studies—to postnatally apparent neurodevelopmental disorders, intellectual disability and neurological conditions.We will review the current state of knowledge of the biological processes kinesins are involved in and discuss their emerging role in human disease, particularly in birth defects and congenital anomaly syndromes. Birth defects remain a leading cause of perinatal lethality in industrialised countries.8 Structural anomalies are recognised with increasing reliability during early pregnancy by the use of high-resolution ultrasound technologies, thus raising questions about diagnosis, aetiology, prognosis and recurrence risk, particularly in the presence of more than one anomaly, which most likely indicates a genetic aetiology. We identify buy chewable kamagra recurrent phenotype patterns caused by alterations in KIF genes, and we outline the complexity of phenotype–genotype correlations mirroring the processes of intracellular microtubule-mediated transport and movement, in which kinesins play a fundamental role.

There are likely many more relationships between the clinical signs and the genetic variants to be identified in the future, and the functional network of kinesins and their role in human disease need to be further elucidated. We propose to introduce the term ‘kinesinopathies’ buy chewable kamagra for this group of conditions, which are phenotypically and genetically overlapping and characterised by the functional impairment of a specific group of molecular motors. We hope that their systematic approach leads to a better recognition in clinical practice, as well as in genome-wide sequencing for diagnosis and research, and opens strategies for the future development of molecular therapies.KIF structureAll KIFs have a phylogenetically well-conserved motor domain head, consisting of an ATP-binding motif and a microtubule-binding domain. Depending on the position of the motor domain, kinesins can be subdivided into N-kinesins (amino-terminal motor domain), M-kinesins (middle-region motor domain) and C-kinesins (carboxy-terminal motor domain).2 Most kinesins buy chewable kamagra belong to the N-kinesin subgroup, but members of the kinesin 13A family (figure 1) belong to the M-kinesin subtype, while KIF1C, KIF2C and KIF3C belong to the C- kinesin subfamily.3 Both N-kinesins and C-kinesins are responsible for plus end and minus end-directed motility, M-kinesins for depolymerisation of microtubules in tubulin molecules. However, there are a few exceptions to this categorisation.9 The motor domain head attaches to the neck, the coiled coil stalk and the tail.

The kinesins’ neck is family-specific and responsible for the direction of motility or regulation of activity. The coiled coil stalk and tail are involved buy chewable kamagra in kinesin dimerisation and/or interactions with cargoes. Kinesins typically use scaffold proteins and adaptor proteins to bind their cargoes but can sometimes bind the cargo directly. Scaffolds and adaptors might also have regulatory roles in kinesin-driven intracellular transport, that is, recognising specific cargoes and regulating their loading and buy chewable kamagra unloading.3Role of KIFs in physiology and diseaseThe application of genome-wide sequencing for gene identification in research or for clinical diagnostic purposes significantly contributes to the identification of KIF candidate genes. Genotype–phenotype correlations in KIF gene-related disorders, together with functional and animal studies, continue to elucidate the complex involvement of KIFs in human developmental pathways and disease.

Table 1 summarises the monogenic conditions caused by variants affecting the function of KIF genes.View this table:Table 1 Specific monogenic disorders caused by variants affecting the function buy chewable kamagra of KIF genesView this table:Table 2 Summary of phenotypes and genotypes of KIF149 26 30 31The kinesins’ functions in physiological processes, however, are complex and still incompletely understood, but their role in cell-cycle progression and regulation, including both meiosis and mitosis, in intracellular trafficking, axonal transport, microtubule activity and ciliogenesis, is increasingly studied. Figure 2 summarises the clustering of KIF genes according to their functional roles and the phenotypical consequences as identified to date in 32 out of the 44 human kinesin genes.Assignment and clustering of KIF genes to various functions and relation to birth defect or monogenic phenotype groups. Detailed phenotypes are shown in tables 1 buy chewable kamagra and 3. Cancer and multifactorial conditions are not included. CNS, central nervous system." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 2 Assignment and clustering of KIF genes to various functions and relation to birth defect or monogenic phenotype groups.

Detailed phenotypes are shown in buy chewable kamagra tables 1 and 3. Cancer and multifactorial conditions are not included. CNS, central nervous system.Kinesins play a pivotal role during early development and organogenesis buy chewable kamagra. Microcephaly is one of the most frequently associated clinical signs, mirroring a defect in the regulation of the final number of neurons during development.10KIF4A is a motor protein that translocates PRC1, a cytokinesis protein, to the ends of the spindle microtubules during mitosis, regulates the PARP1 activity in brain development and the survival of neurons, and is a member of the L1CAM recycling pathway. Variants in buy chewable kamagra L1CAM cause X-linked isolated and syndromic hydrocephalus.

KIF4A was recently proposed as a candidate gene for hydrocephalus.11KIFs are involved in neuronal branching, and microtubule depolarisation, operated by KIF2A M-kinesin, was suggested to suppress collateral branch extension during brain development, leading to anomalies of cortical development, including agyria and pachygyria, subcortical band heterotopia and corpus callosum anomalies.12Functional disruption of KIF genes in knockout mice often results in embryonic lethality, for example, for Kif18A, Kif10, Kif3A, Kif3B and Kif5B,13–17 highlighting the importance of kinesins in embryonic and foetal development. A study on KIF16B demonstrated that microtubule-based trafficking is responsible for early development and stem cell survival.18 KIF26B is essential in kidney development, contributing to the adhesion of mesenchymal cells to the ureteric bud.3 KIF26A was suggested to play a role in enteric nervous system development, because knockout mice develop a megacolon and enteric nerve hypoplasia,19 and to negatively regulate nociceptive sensation.20A significant number of KIFs play a prominent role in ciliogenesis and cilia function. They regulate cilia length, ciliary assembly/disassembly and can have motile cilia-specific functions.21 Some KIFs, specifically found in primary cilia (PC), regulate the length of the axoneme and its disassembly when re-entering the cell cycle.KIF7, also a key component of the Hedgehog signalling pathway, is responsible for cilia length regulation through suppression of microtubule polymerisation.7 KIF7 variants cause hydrolethalus, acrocallosal, and Joubert and Al-Gazali-Bakalinova syndromes.22 Kif2A knockout mice have severe brain defects, and KIF2A variants in humans lead to microcephaly buy chewable kamagra because of cell-cycle delay in cellular progenitors resulting from cilia disassembly defects. KIF24, belonging to the same kinesin 13 family, plays a role in both microtubule depolymerising activity and regulation of the early steps of ciliogenesis. Other PC-related KIFs buy chewable kamagra recently identified are KIF5B, KIF1C and KIF13B, and a potential role in cilia was hypothesised for KIF11 and KIF14.KIF3 protein complex (KIF3A-KIF3B-KAP3 heterotetramer) is a molecular motor necessary for intraflagellar transport (IFT) but is also involved in ciliogenesis of motile cilia.

Kif3a-knockout or Kif3b-knockout mice are prenatally lethal, exhibiting anomalies similar to ciliopathy phenotypes, including the disturbance of left–right body determination.3KIF19A is localised at the tip of motile cilia and performs motor and microtubule-depolymerising activities during IFT. Kif19a-knockout mice present with hydrocephalus and female infertility, common signs in ciliary defects, due to abnormally elongated cilia with altered motility, not able to generate proper fluid flow.9Further KIFs, buy chewable kamagra which may have specific roles in motile cilia, are KIF27, KIF9, KIF6 and KIF18B. Regarding the involvement of numerous KIFs in cilia-related processes, it is not surprising that many disorders caused by variants affecting KIF gene function are presenting with anomalies reminiscent of ciliopathies.Kinesin motors have a fundamental role in neuronal function, as they are responsible for the transport of synaptic vesicle precursors and transmitter receptors along axons and dendrites from the neuron body.3 Molecular motor activity as for KIF1A, KIF5 and KIF17 is important for higher brain functions, such as learning and memory through regulation of synaptic transmission.5 Dysfunction can be associated with intellectual disability and global developmental delay (table 1).Impaired function can also result in peripheral neuropathies (KIF5A, KLC2, KIF1A and KIF1B) and ocular motility disorders (KLC2 and KIF21A)23 24 when axon elongation in the peripheral nervous system and optic nerve is affected. KIF5A variants are associated with epileptic phenotypes both in humans and mice25 because the transport of neurotransmitter receptors is disturbed and inhibitory regulation is altered.Due to their role in cell-cycle regulation, kinesins are important in male spermatogenesis and female oogenesis. They are involved in all steps of spermatogenesis 26 and, based on previous animal studies, they may represent buy chewable kamagra a potential target to treat male infertility.

In female meiosis, 13 KIF genes were studied in animal models. There is some evidence that kinesin expression is vulnerable to maternal ageing and environmental factors, such as oocyte cryopreservation and buy chewable kamagra alcohol consumption. It may be promising to expand research in this field in order to clarify the mechanisms and factors contributing to oocyte quality decline.27Many kinesins were extensively studied in the fields of cancer development, progression and therapy. Deregulation of the mitotic kinesins by both overexpression and decreased expression causes cancer progression buy chewable kamagra or can be a prognostic marker in various tumours.28 The cell-permeable small-molecule mitotic inhibitor monastrol was discovered in 199929 and was shown to arrest cells in mitosis by specifically inhibiting KIF11, a kinesin important for spindle bipolarity. The bipolar mitotic spindle is replaced by a monoastral microtubule array surrounded by a ring of chromosomes, which gave the inhibitor its name.

The mitotic spindle is now a well-known target of chemotherapy, and inhibitors of the mitotic kinesins KIF11, KIF10 and KIF1C are being studied for this purpose.28 30 The redundancy of some kinesins allows them to escape buy chewable kamagra pharmacological inhibition. For example, in the absence of KIF10, KIF15 is able to replace all of its essential functions in spindle assembly. Cilia-related KIF7, KIF13B and KIF27 are involved in SHh signalling and may be a future target in cancer research.28Some kinesins confer susceptibility to a range of multifactorial, metabolic and neurodegenerative conditions. KIF13B contributes to the buy chewable kamagra enhancement of endocytosis of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 1 that is involved in the recognition and internalisation of LDL and factor VIII. Kif13b-knockout mice have hypercholesterolaemia and higher factor VIII serum levels.5 KIF12 is implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, protecting pancreatic β cells from the oxidative stress caused by nutritional excess.5 Variants in KIF1B or KIF21B confer susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (OMIM %612596, #126200).31 32 KIF5A was associated with Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (OMIM #617921).33 KIF3 complex and KIF17 were recently uncovered to be involved in schizophrenia.34 35 Further studies, however, are needed to clarify the precise role of KIFs in neurodegenerative processes and psychiatric conditions.KIF14 -related birth defects.

Lessons learntAdvances in next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionised our understanding of Mendelian disorders, including birth defect phenotypes, by sequencing the coding genome (exome) or entire genome at an buy chewable kamagra unprecedented resolution in a comparably short time span. The technology has been extensively used for gene identification approaches in research for many years, enabling unparalleled genotype–phenotype correlations and the definition of novel pathways of related genes and disorders at an accelerated pace, traditionally focusing on postnatal disorders. Filges and Friedman36 postulated that a number of novel disease genes causing birth defects could be buy chewable kamagra identifiable through the investigation of lethal foetal phenotypes since they would represent the extreme end of allelic milder and viable postnatal phenotypes with less specific or recognisable anomaly patterns. Based on embryonically or perinatally lethal mouse models (www.informatics.jax.org and www.dmdd.org.uk), it is estimated that knockout variants in about 30% of human protein coding genes may present with a phenotype of early lethality. The identification of KIF14 loss of function variants in fetuses with a lethal multiple congenital anomaly syndrome and the subsequent description of the allelic postnatal viable phenotype and further functional characterisation of KIF14 in developmental processes are recent examples of how to study those embryonic lethal phenotypes in order to understand the role of genes for which little to nothing is known.Filges et al identified autosomal recessive compound heterozygous loss of function variants in KIF14 using family-based exome sequencing in a recurrent severe lethal phenotype (OMIM #616258).

It was the first human phenotype reported due to variants in the human KIF14 buy chewable kamagra gene (figure 3).37 The two affected siblings presented with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), oligohydramnios, severe microcephaly, renal cystic dysplasia or agenesis, genital tract malformations (uterine hypoplasia and vaginal atresia), as well as cerebral and cerebellar hypoplasias with partial or total agenesis of the vermis, arhinencephaly, agenesis of occipital lobes/corpus callosum at second trimester ultrasound scan. Cross-species comparison to the laggard spontaneous mice mutant, characterised by homozygous variants of the Kif14 gene,38 confirmed a phenotypical overlap. An increased number of binucleated cells in buy chewable kamagra the tissue histology of the two fetuses were in concordance with the key role of KIF14 during mitosis participating in chromosomes’ congression and alignment, as well as in cytokinesis39 and the observation of binucleated cells as a consequence of failed cytokinesis in mammalian KIF14 knockdown cells. During cytokinesis, PRC1 localises KIF14 at the central spindle and midbody, which in turn recruits citron rho-interacting kinase (CIT) to the midbody. CIT, in turn, acts as a negative regulator buy chewable kamagra of KIF14 activity.

Knockdown of KIF14 in mammalian cells results in impaired localisation of CIT during mitosis.40Structure of KIF14 and summary of all published KIF14 variants affecting function.10 37 41 42 The N-terminal region (aa 1–356) is important for its interactions with PRC1 and the protein’s localisation at the central spindle and midbody. The kinesin motor domain (aa 358–701) is responsible for the microtubule-dependent ATPase activity. The FHA domain (aa 825–891) buy chewable kamagra. Stalk and tail region (aa 891–1648) are necessary for the interaction with the protein CRIK (aa 901–1189, red diagonal lines). There are four additional coiled-coil domains (light blue-coloured areas).61 FHA, buy chewable kamagra forkhead associated.

Aa, amino acid." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 3 Structure of KIF14 and summary of all published KIF14 variants affecting function.10 37 41 42 The N-terminal region (aa 1–356) is important for its interactions with PRC1 and the protein’s localisation at the central spindle and midbody. The kinesin motor buy chewable kamagra domain (aa 358–701) is responsible for the microtubule-dependent ATPase activity. The FHA domain (aa 825–891). Stalk and tail region (aa 891–1648) are buy chewable kamagra necessary for the interaction with the protein CRIK (aa 901–1189, red diagonal lines). There are four additional coiled-coil domains (light blue-coloured areas).61 FHA, forkhead associated.

Aa, amino acid.Filges et al pointed out that KIF14 should be considered a candidate gene for viable postnatal phenotypes, including isolated microcephaly.34 Additional individuals with autosomal recessive variants in KIF14 and isolated primary microcephaly were then described9 41 42 (table 2).Impaired cytokinesis, increased apoptosis and reduced cell motility were confirmed in cells from the described patients, pointing to a new cellular pathway in the pathogenesis of microcephaly.43 Apart from one case with small kidneys with increased echogenicity, none of these 18 patients had associated kidney anomalies. However, a targeted exome sequencing study in 204 unrelated patients with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) reported two more cases of renal anomalies, bilateral hypoplasia or agenesis, caused buy chewable kamagra by KIF14 variants.44 Further nine cases had an associated renal phenotype, which ranged from bilateral renal agenesis to cystic or non-cystic renal hypodysplasia.42 Table 2 and figure 3 summarise KIF14 variants and the associated phenotypes. Loss of function variants more likely lead to multiple congenital anomalies, while hypomorphic variants result in a milder phenotype without renal involvement, although phenotype–genotype correlations remain preliminary for the time being.The phenotypical spectrum ranging from isolated primary microcephaly to congenital anomalies reminiscent of ciliopathy phenotypes suggested a complex role for KIF14 in developmental processes and raised a number of questions about the relationship between its established role in cell division and its possible function in ciliary pathways. Functional studies of absent KIF14 protein in the development of human foetal tissues and mutant zebrafish provided evidence for similarities and differences between mitotic events occurring during proliferation in the development of both brain and kidney.42 The observation that KIF14-stained midbodies accumulate within the lumen of the branch tips of ureteric buy chewable kamagra buds in human foetal kidneys provided a key clue to better understand the mechanism through which the loss of KIF14 affects both brain and kidney development in humans. It was previously demonstrated that the secretion and accumulation of midbody remnants in the cerebrospinal fluid in mice during the early stages of brain development correspond to the amplification of neural progenitors.45 Kif14 mutant zebrafish phenotypes supported the hypothesis of a potential role for KIF14 in cilia.

In vitro and in vivo analyses suggested that loss of kif14 causes ciliary buy chewable kamagra anomalies through an accumulation of mitotic cells in ciliated tissues but failed to establish a direct functional link.21 42 Further mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Overexpression of KIF14 in various types of tumours was suggested to be a possible prognostic marker and a potential target for therapeutic purposes.46Kinesinopathies in birth defect phenotypes. Recurrent themesIn the last few years, an increasing number of variants in KIF genes were described to cause isolated as well as multiple congenital anomalies. There is a huge variability of buy chewable kamagra phenotypes caused by variants even within the same gene. However, we can identify recurrent clinical signs that should alert the clinician to suspect a KIF gene-related disorder and the molecular geneticist to include KIF genes in multigene-panel and genome-wide sequencing approaches.

This will become particularly relevant in prenatal and perinatal medicine, which focuses buy chewable kamagra on the detection of structural anomalies in the fetus and the newborn by using ultrasound and MRI or autopsy when the outcome is lethal. We have summarised the predominant and recurrent structural anomalies in kinesinopathies reported so far that would likely become apparent during the foetal period in table 3 and the syndromic disorders in table 1.View this table:Table 3 KIF gene-related structural congenital anomalies recurrently described in prenatal phenotypesSupplemental materialConsistent with the kinesins’ role in the development of the central nervous system (CNS), brain anomalies of various degrees are a frequent clinical sign, particularly microcephaly, but include lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, thinned or agenesis of the corpus callosum, arhinencephaly, cerebral hypoplasia or atrophy, cerebellar hypoplasia or atrophy, brainstem hypoplasia and a molar tooth sign on brain imaging.12 22 37 44 47–51Primary microcephaly can be detected prenatally or at birth12 22 47 48 50 51 and can present as an isolated or syndromic condition as, for example, caused by variants in KIF149 or in KIF11 (microcephaly with or without chorioretinopathy, lymphoedema or mental retardation. OMIM #152950).48KIF7 variants were related to macrocephaly in the presence of buy chewable kamagra congenital hydrocephalus (hydrolethalus syndrome LS2, OMIM # 614120). Isolated hydrocephalus was reported for KIF4A in a single case.11Foetal akinesia and arthrogryposis (KIF5C12, KIF1434 and KIF26B50) are likely secondary to the neurological compromise of the fetus but can also appear as an early sign of abnormal CNS development, which should prompt specialist CNS sonographic and MRI evaluation of the fetus.Further anomalies of the limbs include camptodactyly (KIF26B50), clubfoot (KIF1A51), rocker-bottom feet (KIF26B50) and congenital lymphoedema of the limbs (dorsa of feet, lower extremities and, rarely, hands) in cases with KIF11 gene mutations.48 In particular, KIF7 gene variants have been related to various anomalies of the hands (tapered fingers, fifth finger clinodactyly, brachydactyly, preaxial or postaxial polydactyly, bifid terminal phalanges of the thumbs, spindle-shaped fingers, clinodactyly and soft tissue webbing) and feet (toe syndactyly, preaxial or postaxial polydactyly, and duplicated halluces).22CAKUT and genital anomalies are reported in various kinesinopathies including renal agenesis or hypoplasia (KIF1437 and KIF1252), ureteral hypoplasia (KIF1437), congenital megabladder (KIF1252) and vesicoureteral reflux (KIF1252), uterine hypoplasia and vaginal atresia (KIF1437) and hypospadias and chordae (KIF16B49).IUGR is recurrently detected (KIF5C12, KIF1437, KIF1053, KIF1554 and KIF2A12) and is particularly relevant when occurring simultaneously with one of the other recurrent clinical signs, indicating a potential syndromic KIF-related disorder. Oligohydramnios or polyhydramnios is most likely secondary to a primary organ anomaly.There are a few kinesinopathy syndromes that have been specifically reported to be lethal, such as the ciliary phenotype (OMIM #616258), caused by variants in KIF1434, and hydrolethalus syndrome (OMIM #614120), caused by variants in KIF7.22 However, lethality is usually closely related to the specific major anomalies, and it can be hypothesised that such a lethal phenotype will exist for all KIF gene-related disorders.Developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures, and sensory and motor disturbances of the peripheral nervous system, as well as eye anomalies, such as microphthalmy, optic nerve pallor, fibrosis of extraocular muscles and chorioretinopathy, will escape detection in the foetal period but are reported in postnatal patients.Kinesin pathways in birth defectsFunctional studies of kinesins in birth defects are still sparse, and little is known about their networks and pathways.

In order to improve our understanding, we used the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA Qiagen, Redwood City, California, USA) to visualise and analyse the connections between the 13 kinesin motor proteins associated with structural congenital anomalies (KIF5C, KIF1A, KIF1BP, KIF14, KIF16B, KIF7, KIF4A, KIF11, KIF10, KIF26B, KIF12, KIF15 and KIF2A) and in up to 10 of each of their buy chewable kamagra most significant downstream proteins. The connections are defined as protein–protein interactions, activation, regulation of binding, expression, localisation, phosphorylation, protein–RNA interactions, molecular cleavage, ubiquitination, protein–DNA interactions, inhibition, translocation and transcription. Figure 3 displays the results buy chewable kamagra. We used the software Gephy55 to look for all possible interactions between all proteins of the network and also used the IPA data to retrieve the canonical pathways involved. Figure 4 and online supplementary buy chewable kamagra material, table 4, summarise the results.

KIF7, KIF14 and KIF12 are located within the same network, and because of multiple connections between themselves and their downstream proteins, it is not surprising that they are all involved in kidney anomalies. IPA data are based on current publications and are therefore subject to bias because proteins that are most interconnected are also most probably those that have been more extensively studied buy chewable kamagra. However, we consider the KIF genes coding for proteins seeming less important within the network to be strong candidates for future studies of human developmental disorders.IPA of the 13 kinesins known to be involved in birth defects with respect to their position in the cell. Proteins displayed on the right side of the figure, below the tag ‘other’, are those for which no subcellular location is known. Birth defect-related kinesins and their connection with each other buy chewable kamagra are highlighted in green.

Light blue-coloured downstream proteins are those which are known to cause birth defects when altered. Yellow-coloured proteins are those involved in neurological buy chewable kamagra disorders overlapping with the clinical features of kinesinopathies. The legend of the biological function associated with every molecule is displayed on the right. Path Designer by IPA was used for buy chewable kamagra the figure design. IPA, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 4 IPA of the 13 kinesins known to be involved in birth defects with respect to their position in the cell.

Proteins displayed on the right side of the figure, below the tag ‘other’, are those for which no subcellular location is known. Birth defect-related kinesins and their connection buy chewable kamagra with each other are highlighted in green. Light blue-coloured downstream proteins are those which are known to cause birth defects when altered. Yellow-coloured proteins are those involved in neurological disorders overlapping with the clinical buy chewable kamagra features of kinesinopathies. The legend of the biological function associated with every molecule is displayed on the right.

Path Designer by IPA buy chewable kamagra was used for the figure design. IPA, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis.Closing remarks and future perspectivesNovel KIF genes are increasingly identified, and there is a growing body of literature demonstrating the impact of kinesin dysfunction in human disease. We propose to introduce the term kinesinopathies for buy chewable kamagra conditions caused by variants in KIF genes, since recurrent and common functional and phenotypical themes can be observed. In analogy to ciliopathies56 and rasopathies,57 the delineation of the clinical, genetic and functional hallmarks of kinesinopathies will be important to better recognise these conditions, to understand the pathomechanisms and to ultimately improve the clinical management of the patients. Previously, the unified view of the phenotype characteristics of ciliary dysfunction allowed a tremendous increase in awareness, both in clinic and research, and the further identification of yet unrecognised ciliary disorders and the genes and proteins involved in their pathogenesis.56Remarkable progress was achieved in assigning function to kinesins through their study in isolated and multiple congenital anomaly phenotypes.

They are one large superfamily of molecular motors out of three (kinesins, dyneins and myosins), which is of key importance in several fundamental cellular processes using microtubules as rails for directional anterograde intracellular transport, including its regulation and buy chewable kamagra modulating signal transduction.5 Kinesin motors are most important for the movement of chromosomes along the spindles during chromosome segregation, regulation of spindle formation, cell division and cytokinesis. These essential and broad cellular functions are critical for many physiological processes such as neuronal function and survival, some ciliary functions and ciliogenesis, determination of the left/right asymmetry of our body and regulation of organogenesis, thus explaining the impact and emerging recognition of kinesins in embryonic and foetal development. Defects can result buy chewable kamagra in neuropathies, higher brain functions and structural brain anomalies. Multiple congenital anomalies, including the kidney and urinary tract and limb anomalies, are repeatedly reported. Microcephaly, which is usually not associated with genes implicated in specific ciliary mechanisms, and CNS anomalies are the most buy chewable kamagra recurrent clinical signs in both the prenatal and postnatal phenotypes described so far.

The discovery of the implication of KIF14 in microcephaly further suggested a possible novel role of other microcephaly proteins in cytokinesis. A number of syndromic kinesinopathies present, however, with phenotype patterns reminiscent of ciliopathies. So far, however, a direct functional impact was confirmed in only a few and buy chewable kamagra could not be demonstrated, for example, for KIF14, despite an overlapping clinical pattern. In turn, ciliopathies are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of conditions themselves. Studying tissue and cell type-specific function and expression may help to further define the buy chewable kamagra specific defects related to the individual aberrant kinesin.The pleiotropic nature of human kinesinopathies, however, is just emerging, but their study promises to provide important insights into human developmental pathways.

Seemingly unrelated clinical entities are highlighting a common theme. In a relatively short time span, monogenic KIF-related disorders were identified to buy chewable kamagra present with often severe and lethal antenatal anomalies, with multiple or isolated congenital anomalies, neurodevelopmental and neurological disorders, or an increased susceptibility to multifactorial conditions. We focused on the emerging role of kinesins in structural congenital anomalies because, as illustrated for the KIF14 gene, great potential to decipher allelic viable phenotypes and developmental pathways lies in the study of these human knockout phenotypes at the severe end of the phenotypical spectrum. Knockout variants in about 30% of human protein coding genes in our genome may present with a phenotype of early lethality, and KIF genes seem to play an important role in such fundamental processes of human development. Identifying and characterising the variants, genes and phenotypes will extend our knowledge on early human development and pathomechanisms, and will ultimately also improve the clinical utility of genome-wide sequencing approaches for prenatal and postnatal application by our increased ability to interpret loss buy chewable kamagra of function and hypomorphic variants alike.

Furthermore, kinesins were extensively studied in cancer research and therapeutic strategies targeting their specific functions, such as the example of monastrol and other inhibitors of the mitotic kinesins may be adopted in the future. There are likely many more kinesinopathies to be unravelled in the field of birth defects because of their pivotal role in cellular logistics, but their recognition in clinics and research will depend on our ability to identify and characterise the common buy chewable kamagra clinical, molecular and functional themes of these disorders and to use them to improve our understanding of their disease mechanisms.IntroductionIntellectual disability (ID) affects about 3% of individuals worldwide and raises significant issues in terms of diagnostic, management and genetic counselling. The presence of pigmentation anomalies in a patient with ID represents helpful clinical clues in order to narrow the range of aetiological hypothesis. Hypomelanosis of Ito (HMI, MIM #300337) is an unspecific term encompassing a heterogeneous group of disorders characterised by cutaneous hypopigmented whorls and buy chewable kamagra streaks along Blaschko’s lines and variable extracutaneous features affecting the musculoskeletal and nervous systems.1 The cutaneous pattern therefore represents a non-specific hallmark of mosaicism in these neurocutaneous conditions. Genetic mosaicism is due to postzygotic mutations, either chromosomal rearrangements or point mutations, whereas random X inactivation in females leads to functional mosaicism.2 Unravelling the molecular basis of pigmentary mosaicism (PM) is still a challenge due to clinical and genetic heterogeneity, technical difficulties in detecting mosaic mutations by classical sequencing approaches and the complexities of obtaining affected tissue.

As part of a collaborative group, we recently reported de novo mutations in exons 3 and 4 of transcription factor E3 (TFE3) as the cause for HMI in four unrelated individuals, including one male, buy chewable kamagra as well as syndromic ID without pigmentary disorders in a female.3TFE3 belongs to the MITF family of mammalian basic helix–loop–helix zipper transcription factors, together with TFEB and TFEC. All four can form homodimers or heterodimers with each other.4 Embryonic expression of TFE3 orthologues Tfe3a and Tfe3b was demonstrated in the zebrafish in a wide range of tissues.5 TFE3 subcellular localisation plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular homeostasis and embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation. The phosphorylated TFE3 is retained in the cytoplasm, whereas dephosphorylated protein translocates to the nucleus to promote the transcription of target genes involved in lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy.6 TFE3 relocalisation to the nucleus is driven on various stressors, such as starvation,7 8 DNA damage,9 mitochondrial damage,10 Golgi stress11 and pathogens12 in an mTORC1-dependent manner, and oxidative stress13 or cadmium exposition14 in an mTORC1-independent manner. Moreover, lysosomal signalling-induced nucleocytoplasmic redistribution of TFE3 is essential to the regulation of ESC renewal.3 15 By restricting buy chewable kamagra nuclear localisation and activity of Tfe3, lysosome activity, the tumour suppressor protein folliculin and the Ragulator protein complex enable the exit from pluripotency and therefore drive differentiation. Conversely, enforced nuclear Tfe3 enables ESCs to withstand differentiation.15 In humans, TFE3 mutations have long been known in cancer.

Gene fusions by translocations or other chromosomal rearragements involving TFE3 and five partner genes have indeed been reported to occur in a subset of renal cell buy chewable kamagra carcinomas (RCCs), referred to as ‘TFE-fusion RCC’, and, more rarely, to lung sarcoma and perivascular epithelioid cell tumours.16 Beyond these data on TFE3 function, by the report of a series of 17 individuals harbouring de novo mutations in exons 3 and 4 of TFE3, we emphasise their phenotype and bring additional clinical insight toward the recognition of this novel developmental disorder.ResultsWe describe a series of 17 patients carrying a de novo mutation in TFE3, 5 of them being previously published with limited clinical information.3 Twelve were females and five were males. Their age ranged from 12 months to 22 years. Five were referred for HMI, five for syndromic ID and five for suspicion of storage disorder.Clinical dataThe clinical features buy chewable kamagra are summarised in table 1. Additional information can be found in online supplementary data 1.Supplemental materialView this table:Table 1 Clinical and molecular features of the 17 patients with an TFE3 mutationNeonatal course was remarkable for nine patients. History of jaundice, hepatomegaly or feeding difficulties was reported for three patients each, hypoglycaemia for two and cholestasis for one.

All these features were transient.Developmental delay, usually severe and noticeable from the first months of life, was a buy chewable kamagra constant feature in all the individuals. Only 6 patients were able to walk at the time of the study, whereas 11 were still unable to walk. All patients were non-verbal, except for two older patients who could buy chewable kamagra speak a few words. Neurological examination was abnormal in 12 individuals and consisted in truncal hypotonia, associated with lower limb spasticity (6 individuals) or ataxia (2 adults). Behavioural issues such as autistic features buy chewable kamagra and sleeping disturbance were noted for 11 patients.

Eleven patients developed epilepsy, onset in the first decade and characterised as intractable in three of them. Brain MRI was normal in 10 individuals and abnormal in 6 patients (hydrocephaly, short corpus callosum, Dandy-Walker malformation, arachnoid cyst, periventricular white matter lesions, delayed myelination and cerebral atrophy). The sensory anomaly was congenital buy chewable kamagra hearing loss (5 patients), and ophtalmological anomalies (10 patients) consisted of strabismus, hyperopia, retinal degeneration, depigmented macule on the iris, oculomotor apraxia or impaired vision of cortical origin.Facial dysmorphism shared among the patients consisted in coarseness, flat nasal bridge, short nose with anteverted nares, widely spaced eyes, almond-shaped eyes, thick lips, facial hypertrichosis, fleshy earlobe, and full and pink cheeks (figure 1). Twelve patients had pigmentation anomalies, located on Blaschko’s lines for 10 of them (figure 2). One was buy chewable kamagra diagnosed at 4 years old with histiocytofibroma.

Moderate to severe postnatal growth retardation affected 10 patients, who had a length between −2.0 and −4.5 SD. Obesity affected 13 buy chewable kamagra individuals. Skeletal anomalies were frequent (11 individuals) and consisted of flat or clubfeet, hyperlordosis, scoliosis, hip dislocation, limitation of elbow extension and genu valgum. Recurrent s of the upper airways were buy chewable kamagra noted in five patients. One had a documented neutropenia.

Early-onset chronic interstitial lung disease was reported in two patients. Nail clubbing was noted in two individuals buy chewable kamagra. Visceral malformations consisted of congenital heart defect (left ventricle dilatation, aortic insufficiency and patent ductus arteriosus) in three patients, umbilical hernia in three individuals, lateral semicircular canal dysplasia, posterior plagiocephaly, sleep apnoea syndrome, anteriorly displaced anus and hypospadias in one individual each.Facial phenotypes of seven patients. (A–C) Patient 5, aged 6 months buy chewable kamagra (A,B) and 3 years (C). (D) Patient 8, aged 5 years.

(E,F) Patient 2, aged 5 and 20 years buy chewable kamagra. (G–I) Patient 3, aged 1 year (G) and 3 years (H,I). (J,K) Patient 13, aged 22 years. (L–O) Patient 6, aged 8 months (L), 20 months (M) and 3 years (N,O) buy chewable kamagra. (P,Q) Patient 10 aged 22 years." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 1 Facial phenotypes of seven patients.

(A–C) Patient 5, buy chewable kamagra aged 6 months (A,B) and 3 years (C). (D) Patient 8, aged 5 years. (E,F) Patient 2, aged buy chewable kamagra 5 and 20 years. (G–I) Patient 3, aged 1 year (G) and 3 years (H,I). (J,K) Patient 13, aged 22 years.

(L–O) Patient 6, aged 8 months (L), 20 buy chewable kamagra months (M) and 3 years (N,O). (P,Q) Patient 10 aged 22 years.Cutaneous features. (A) Patient buy chewable kamagra 3. Umbilical hernia, widely spaced nipples and hypopigmentation on the left side of the abdomen. (B) Patient buy chewable kamagra 17.

Hypotonia, umbilical hernia and widely spaced nipples. (C) Patient 8 buy chewable kamagra. Blaschko’s lines on the back. (D) Patient 6. Hypopigmentation on the left side of the abdomen buy chewable kamagra.

(E) Patient 7. Blaschko’s lines on the abdomen and right side of buy chewable kamagra the trunk. (F) Patient 13. Hand. Note clubbing of thumbnail and loose skin.

(G) Patient 17. Blaschko’s lines on the left side of the abdomen. (H) Patient 17. Hand. Note tapering fingers and wrinkled skin.

(I) Patient 1. Linear hypopigmentation on the back. (J) Patient 6. Blaschko’s lines on the back. (K) Patient 3.

Blachko’s lines on the right lower limb. (L) Patient 6. Blaschko’s lines on the right lower limb. (M,N) Patient 7. Linear hyperpigmentation on the lower limbs.

(O) Patient 11. Blaschko’s lines on the back." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 2 Cutaneous features. (A) Patient 3. Umbilical hernia, widely spaced nipples and hypopigmentation on the left side of the abdomen. (B) Patient 17.

Hypotonia, umbilical hernia and widely spaced nipples. (C) Patient 8. Blaschko’s lines on the back. (D) Patient 6. Hypopigmentation on the left side of the abdomen.

(E) Patient 7. Blaschko’s lines on the abdomen and right side of the trunk. (F) Patient 13. Hand. Note clubbing of thumbnail and loose skin.

(G) Patient 17. Blaschko’s lines on the left side of the abdomen. (H) Patient 17. Hand. Note tapering fingers and wrinkled skin.

(I) Patient 1. Linear hypopigmentation on the back. (J) Patient 6. Blaschko’s lines on the back. (K) Patient 3.

Blachko’s lines on the right lower limb. (L) Patient 6. Blaschko’s lines on the right lower limb. (M,N) Patient 7. Linear hyperpigmentation on the lower limbs.

(O) Patient 11. Blaschko’s lines on the back.Molecular resultsThe characteristics of the 13 different de novo TFE3 variants identified in the 17 unrelated individuals are summarised in table 2. All but one were missense variants, affecting nine different aminoacids. One was a splice donor mutation. This mutation was reported a few weeks ago in a patient with a similar phenotype.21 Two variants were localised in exon 3 and 11 in exon 4 (figure 3).

All were absent from public databases and were predicted to be pathogenic by prediction softwares. TFE3 protein and localisation of the missense variants identified. In bold are variants identified in two patients. In bold and underlined is the variant identified in three patients. In green is the intronic variant." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 3 TFE3 protein and localisation of the missense variants identified.

In bold are variants identified in two patients. In bold and underlined is the variant identified in three patients. In green is the intronic variant.View this table:Table 2 Molecular data of the 13 de novo TFE3 mutations. Characteristics, inheritance, frequency in the public database GnomAD, prediction scores regarding pathogenicity (Polyphen, Grantham and CADD (Combined Annotation Dependant Depletion) scores). The transcript is NM_006521.5The putative mosaicism was assessed through X inactivation studies in females and analysis of the exome sequencing data in males, by checking the total number of reads covering the variant, as well as the number of reads supporting the presence of the variant (table 1).

Allele frequencies in females were always consistent with a constitutional heterozygous mutation. X inactivation was skewed in blood of the female patients 1, 3 and 7 and in fibroblasts of Patient 2. X inactivation was random in fibroblasts of Patient 1 and 3. Regarding the male patients, the mutation was identified in 65% of the reads for Patient 17% and 88% of the reads for Patient 15 (106/120). No mosaicism was detected in the blood of Patient 13, 14 and 16 despite the presence of pigmentary manifestations in Patient 16.DiscussionTFE3 functions in signalling of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1).

The PIK3-AKT-mTOR pathway plays a role in the regulation of cellular growth, proliferation, survival and metabolism. Overactivation of the mTOR signalling is responsible for neurocutaneous disorders and cancers.22 Somatic mutations in TSC1, TSC2, AKT3, PIK3CA and MTOR are responsible for focal cortical dysplasia type II (MIM607341),23–25 hemimegalencephaly26 and megalencephaly.27 The phenotype ascribed to germline TSC1/TSC2, PTEN, MTOR and PK3R2/AKT3/CCND2 mutations – respectively in tuberous sclerosis (TS, MIM 191100), Cowden syndrome (CS, MIM 158350), Smith-Kingsmore syndrome (MIM 616638) and Megalencephaly, Polymicrogyria, Polydactyly and Hydrocephalus syndrome 1, 2 and 3 (MPPH1/2/3, MIM 603387/615939/615938) - is characterised by the association of ID, epilepsy, brain malformations and skin tumours. Similarly, all the individuals harbouring a de novo TFE3 mutation reported in the series presented with a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. Delayed psychomotor development was constant. The youngest patient to acquire independent walking was 30 months old, and more than half of the patients aged over 18 months (57%), did not acquire walk at the last examination.

Conversely to patients with MTOR, AKT3 or PTEN mutation, none of the patients described in this series had macrocephaly. Brain imaging was abnormal in 35% of the patients. Hydrocephaly and corpus callosum dysgenesis, identified in respectively three and one individual, were previously reported in patients with mosaic gain of function MTOR mutations.28 29 One patient had surgery to remove an early-onset histiocytofibroma. However, no other skin tumour was reported, either in this patient or in any other from the series.Pigmentation anomalies, along Blaschko’s lines or, for one patient, as a large hyperpigmented area, were present in a majority of the individuals (71%) in the series, including 40% of the males and 83% of the females. PM along Blaschko’s lines is highly suggestive of genetic mosaicism.30 Genomic mosaicism is defined by the presence of at least two cell populations with different genotypes in an individual originating from one zygote and mainly occurs through post-zygotic event, whereas females can present with functional (epigenetics) mosaicism due to X inactivation.2 PM is a classical feature of X-linked male-lethal genodermatosis, such as incontinentia pigmenti (IP, MIM #308300), focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH, MIM #305600), chondrodysplasia punctuata type 2 (Conradi-Hunermann-Happle syndrome, CDPX2, MIM #302960) and linear skin defects with multiple congenital anomalies (LSDMCA1, MIM #309801).

In these conditions, the overwhelming predominance of affected females is a consequence of the male lethality, and the PM a manifestation of the functional mosaicism occurring in females. Similarly, the majority of individuals with de novo TFE3 variants in our cohort were females (sex ratio female:male was 12:5 (2.4)). The study of X-inactivation on non-cultured fibroblasts was consistent with functional mosaicism in two affected females with PM who harboured random X-inactivation, whereas a third female without PM had skewed X-inactivation. In IP, FDH and CDPX2, most hemizygous males die in utero. However, there have been reports of surviving males 31–33 with an estimated prevalence around 10% in FDH and IP.32 34 The majority of them are explained by post-zygotic mutations or chromosomal anomalies (Klinefelter syndrome).

Non-mosaic males have also been reported in FDH and IP – respectively about 17% and 45% of the affected males harbour a non-mosaic variant.32 35 In our series, males represented 29% of the patients with a de novo TFE3 variant. A mosaic variant was identified in blood for half of them. None had Klinefelter syndrome. Interestingly, mosaicism was detected in only one out of the two males with PM, and one male with a mosaic variant had no pigmentation anomalies noted on examination. It is still possible that subtle pigmentation anomalies were missed on examination.

Moreover, somatic mosaicism can be difficult to detect. Recent studies have shown that a large proportion of de novo mutations presumed to be germline had in fact occurred as post-zygotic event.36 In the males of this cohort, WES was performed on leucocytes-derived DNA and no other tissue was studied. Therefore, it is possible that a low mosaicism was not detected. Finally, it is probable than TFE3 mutations account for a significant proportion of patients with HMI. Indeed, in this population, the high frequency of ID, epilepsy, coarse facial features has long been emphasised in the literature.37By its ability to bind the coordinated lysosomal enhancement and regulation (CLEAR) sites in the promotor region of target genes, TFE3 is involved in the control lysosomal biogenesis, autophagy and endocytosis.8 Several patients of the series indeed had clinical and biochemical features that pointed toward an inborn error of metabolism.

Lysosomal storage disorder was suspected due to the variable association of coarse facial features (88%), skeletal anomalies (65%) –flat or clubfeet, hyperlordosis, hip dislocation, limitation of elbow extension, genu valgum, scoliosis–, postnatal growth retardation (59%), history of speech or developmental regression (29%) congenital hearing loss (29%), recurrent upper airways s (29%) neonatal liver anomalies such as hepatomegaly and cholestasis (18%), upper airways s (24%), umbilical hernia (18%), sleep apnoea syndrome (6%) and aortic insufficiency (6%). Other metabolic anomalies observed in the series were obesity, defined in children by body mass index (BMI) (weight/height2) above the WHO curve, present in the oldest patients (76%), neonatal transient hypoglycaemia (12%), and hyperlactataemia (6%). Dysregulation of lipid metabolism, via suppression of thermogenesis and decreased lipolysis, thus leading to increased adipose tissue, was previously observed in adipose-specific TFE3 transgenic mice.38 Similarly to lysosomes, mitochondrias have a key role in cellular metabolism, including autophagy. Recent data demonstrate that mitochondrial and lysosomal metabolisms are interrelated.39 Muscle biopsy, performed in two individuals from this cohort, showed fat and glycogen accumulation, muscular fibre size irregularity, without evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction. Interestingly in the more recent data, evidences showing that TFE3 plays a role in the regulation of the circadian oscillations of the expression of genes involved in autophagy and lipid metabolism, and that Tfe3 knock-out mice had abnormal circadian behaviour.40 Indeed, in our series, five patients (29%) were noted to have sleep disturbance.

This could be due to circadian rhythms alteration. Finally, TFE3 has been shown to be involved in the regulation of innate immune response in macrophages via the FLCN-AMPK signalling axis,41 and of B-lymphocytes activation.42 Along these lines, four patients of the series (24%) had a history of recurrent s, associated with documented neutropenia in one of them. As shown in table 3, a summary of the frequency of the features observed in the cohort, facial dysmorphism was constant and strikingly similar among the patients. More than two-third had anteverted nares, broad flat nasal bridge, almond-shaped and widely spaced eyes, puffy cheeks and coarse facial features (thick lips and fleshy earlobes). More than half had facial hypertrichosis.

All individuals presented with at least four of the above features. One patient had an extreme facial phenotype of hypertelorism, bifid nose and bilateral cleft lip and palate. Whether these frontonasal dysplasia features may be associated with the TFE3 mutation remains unclear. No other mutation in known genes was found in Patient 1’s exome sequencing data.View this table:Table 3 Frequency of the clinical features observed in the seriesTFE3 is a highly conserved protein, intolerant to loss of function as supported by data from the GnomAD browser43 (probability of being loss-of-function intolerant (pLI) evaluated at 0.98, observed:expected ratio=0.06) and to missense variants (Z=2.15). Moreover, TFE3 does not, or only in a few tissues, escape X inactivation, suggesting that TFE3 gene dosage is crucial to cell function.44 45 In vitro, Villegas et al recently showed that the absence of either TFE3 exon 3 or 4 resulted in a nuclear gain-of-function Tfe3 allele in ESCs, indicating that both exons 3 and 4 are required for Tfe3 inactivation.3 Nuclear localisation and resistance to differentiation were proved in Tfe3 knock-out (K.O.) ESCs expressing murine Tfe3 alleles (Gln118Pro and Pro185Leu, corresponding to mutations Gln119Pro and Pro186Leu identified in individuals referred to as patients 1 and 2 in this series).

Based on the analysis of TFE3 secondary structure,46 indicating that residues 110–215 are predicted to form a domain of two stable alpha helices that might be disrupted by mutations in exons 3 and 4, and the observation of a similar phenotype in patients harbouring mutations in exons 3 and 4, it was suggested that Tfe3 exons 3 and 4 form a Rag binding fold whose structural integrity is indispensable for lysosome-mediated cytoplasmic Tfe3 inactivation.3 In this series, the recurrent mutations Arg117Gln, Leu191Pro and Thr187Met were present in respectively two, two and three patients. The aminoacid in position 187 was mutated in five patients. In addition, 13 of the described mutations were localised between positions p.184 and p.201. This proximity could account for the absence of obvious genotype–phenotype correlation. The canonical splice site variant in intron 4 identified in patient 9 might lead to in-frame exon skipping of exon 4.

The clinical picture of the patient with this splice site variant perfectly fits with the syndrome described here. As a consequence, we raise the hypothesis of a gain-of-function effect of this variant.In conclusion, de novo mutations in exons 3 and 4 of the X-linked gene TFE3 are responsible for a neurocutaneous disorder with specific and recognisable facial dysmorphism, lysosomal storage disorder-like features and PM. This series unravels TFE3 as a major gene responsible for HMI and for a rare cause of syndromic ID. Furthermore, we provide clinical and molecular data on a previously unidentified lysosomal storage disorder, in which new insights, especially biochemical features, will probably be investigated further, together with the description of more patients. Further delineation of this phenotype will indeed allow a better understanding of the link between lysosomal signalling and development.

Finally, the evidence for mosaicism in this recently described disorder highlights the importance of considering mosaic variants on next-generation sequencing reports in diagnostic, including for patients without suggestive phenotype..

Kamagra jelly nl

Credit Discover More kamagra jelly nl. IStock Share Fast Facts New @HopkinsMedicine study finds African-American women with common form of hair loss at increased risk of uterine fibroids - Click to Tweet New study in @JAMADerm shows most common form of alopecia (hair loss) in African-American women associated with higher risks of uterine fibroids - Click to Tweet In a study of medical records gathered on hundreds of thousands of African-American women, Johns Hopkins researchers say they have evidence that women with a common form of hair loss have an increased chance of developing uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids.In a report on the research, published in the December 27 issue of JAMA Dermatology, the researchers call on physicians who treat women with central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) to make patients aware that they may be at increased risk for fibroids and should be screened for the condition, particularly if they have symptoms such as heavy bleeding and pain. CCCA predominantly affects black women and is the most common form of permanent kamagra jelly nl alopecia in this population. The excess scar tissue that forms as a result of this type of hair loss may also explain the higher risk for uterine fibroids, which are characterized by fibrous growths in the lining of the womb.

Crystal Aguh, M.D., assistant professor of dermatology at the Johns Hopkins University School kamagra jelly nl of Medicine, says the scarring associated with CCCA is similar to the scarring associated with excess fibrous tissue elsewhere in the body, a situation that may explain why women with this type of hair loss are at a higher risk for fibroids.People of African descent, she notes, are more prone to develop other disorders of abnormal scarring, termed fibroproliferative disorders, such as keloids (a type of raised scar after trauma), scleroderma (an autoimmune disorder marked by thickening of the skin as well as internal organs), some types of lupus and clogged arteries. During a four-year period from 2013-2017, the researchers analyzed patient data from the Johns Hopkins electronic medical record system (Epic) of 487,104 black women ages 18 and over. The prevalence of those with fibroids was compared kamagra jelly nl in patients with and without CCCA. Overall, the researchers found that 13.9 percent of women with CCCA also had a history of uterine fibroids compared to only 3.3 percent of black women without the condition.

In absolute numbers, out of the 486,000 women who were reviewed, 16,212 had fibroids.Within that population, 447 had CCCA, of which 62 had fibroids. The findings translate to a fivefold increased risk of uterine fibroids in women kamagra jelly nl with CCCA, compared to age, sex and race matched controls. Aguh cautions that their study does not suggest any cause and effect relationship, or prove a common cause for both conditions. €œThe cause of kamagra jelly nl the link between the two conditions remains unclear,” she says.

However, the association was strong enough, she adds, to recommend that physicians and patients be made aware of it. Women with this type of scarring alopecia should be screened not only for fibroids, kamagra jelly nl but also for other disorders associated with excess fibrous tissue, Aguh says. An estimated 70 percent of white women and between 80 and 90 percent of African-American women will develop fibroids by age 50, according to the NIH, and while CCCA is likely underdiagnosed, some estimates report a prevalence of rates as high as 17 percent of black women having this condition. The other kamagra jelly nl authors on this paper were Ginette A.

Okoye, M.D. Of Johns Hopkins and Yemisi Dina of Meharry Medical College.Credit. The New England Journal of Medicine Share Fast Facts This study clears up how big an effect the mutational burden has kamagra jelly nl on outcomes to immune checkpoint inhibitors across many different cancer types. - Click to Tweet The number of mutations in a tumor’s DNA is a good predictor of whether it will respond to a class of cancer immunotherapy drugs known as checkpoint inhibitors.

- Click to Tweet The “mutational burden,” or the number of mutations present in a tumor’s DNA, is a good predictor of whether that cancer type will respond to a class of cancer immunotherapy drugs known as checkpoint inhibitors, a new study led by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers shows kamagra jelly nl. The finding, published in the Dec. 21 New kamagra jelly nl England Journal of Medicine, could be used to guide future clinical trials for these drugs. Checkpoint inhibitors are a relatively new class of drug that helps the immune system recognize cancer by interfering with mechanisms cancer cells use to hide from immune cells.

As a result, the drugs cause the immune system to fight cancer in the same way that it would fight an . These medicines have had remarkable success in treating some types of cancers that historically have had poor prognoses, such as advanced melanoma kamagra jelly nl and lung cancer. However, these therapies have had little effect on other deadly cancer types, such as pancreatic cancer and glioblastoma. The mutational kamagra jelly nl burden of certain tumor types has previously been proposed as an explanation for why certain cancers respond better than others to immune checkpoint inhibitors says study leader Mark Yarchoan, M.D., chief medical oncology fellow.

Work by Dung Le, M.D., associate professor of oncology, and other researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and its Bloomberg~Kimmel Cancer Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy showed that colon cancers that carry a high number of mutations are more likely to respond to checkpoint inhibitors than those that have fewer mutations. However, exactly how big an effect the kamagra jelly nl mutational burden has on outcomes to immune checkpoint inhibitors across many different cancer types was unclear. To investigate this question, Yarchoan and colleagues Alexander Hopkins, Ph.D., research fellow, and Elizabeth Jaffee, M.D., co-director of the Skip Viragh Center for Pancreas Cancer Clinical Research and Patient Care and associate director of the Bloomberg~Kimmel Institute, combed the medical literature for the results of clinical trials using checkpoint inhibitors on various different types of cancer. They combined these findings with data on the mutational kamagra jelly nl burden of thousands of tumor samples from patients with different tumor types.

Analyzing 27 different cancer types for which both pieces of information were available, the researchers found a strong correlation. The higher a cancer type’s mutational burden tends to be, the more likely it is to respond to checkpoint inhibitors. More than half of the differences in how well kamagra jelly nl cancers responded to immune checkpoint inhibitors could be explained by the mutational burden of that cancer. €œThe idea that a tumor type with more mutations might be easier to treat than one with fewer sounds a little counterintuitive.

It’s one kamagra jelly nl of those things that doesn’t sound right when you hear it,” says Hopkins. €œBut with immunotherapy, the more mutations you have, the more chances the immune system has to recognize the tumor.” Although this finding held true for the vast majority of cancer types they studied, there were some outliers in their analysis, says Yarchoan. For example, Merkel cell cancer, a kamagra jelly nl rare and highly aggressive skin cancer, tends to have a moderate number of mutations yet responds extremely well to checkpoint inhibitors. However, he explains, this cancer type is often caused by a kamagra, which seems to encourage a strong immune response despite the cancer’s lower mutational burden.

In contrast, the most common type of colorectal cancer has moderate mutational burden, yet responds poorly to checkpoint inhibitors for reasons that are still unclear. Yarchoan notes that these findings could help guide clinical trials to test checkpoint inhibitors on cancer types for which these drugs haven’t kamagra jelly nl yet been tried. Future studies might also focus on finding ways to prompt cancers with low mutational burdens to behave like those with higher mutational burdens so that they will respond better to these therapies. He and his colleagues plan to extend this line of research by kamagra jelly nl investigating whether mutational burden might be a good predictor of whether cancers in individual patients might respond well to this class of immunotherapy drugs.

€œThe end goal is precision medicine—moving beyond what’s true for big groups of patients to see whether we can use this information to help any given patient,” he says. Yarchoan receives funding from the Norman &. Ruth Rales Foundation and the Conquer Cancer Foundation. Through a licensing agreement with Aduro Biotech, Jaffee has the potential to receive royalties in the future..

Credit How to get antabuse without a doctor buy chewable kamagra. IStock Share Fast Facts New @HopkinsMedicine study finds African-American women with common form of hair loss at increased risk of uterine fibroids - Click to Tweet New study in @JAMADerm shows most common form of alopecia (hair loss) in African-American women associated with higher risks of uterine fibroids - Click to Tweet In a study of medical records gathered on hundreds of thousands of African-American women, Johns Hopkins researchers say they have evidence that women with a common form of hair loss have an increased chance of developing uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids.In a report on the research, published in the December 27 issue of JAMA Dermatology, the researchers call on physicians who treat women with central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) to make patients aware that they may be at increased risk for fibroids and should be screened for the condition, particularly if they have symptoms such as heavy bleeding and pain. CCCA predominantly affects black women and is the most common form of buy chewable kamagra permanent alopecia in this population. The excess scar tissue that forms as a result of this type of hair loss may also explain the higher risk for uterine fibroids, which are characterized by fibrous growths in the lining of the womb.

Crystal Aguh, M.D., assistant professor of dermatology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, says the scarring associated with CCCA is similar to the scarring associated with buy chewable kamagra excess fibrous tissue elsewhere in the body, a situation that may explain why women with this type of hair loss are at a higher risk for fibroids.People of African descent, she notes, are more prone to develop other disorders of abnormal scarring, termed fibroproliferative disorders, such as keloids (a type of raised scar after trauma), scleroderma (an autoimmune disorder marked by thickening of the skin as well as internal organs), some types of lupus and clogged arteries. During a four-year period from 2013-2017, the researchers analyzed patient data from the Johns Hopkins electronic medical record system (Epic) of 487,104 black women ages 18 and over. The prevalence of those with fibroids was compared in buy chewable kamagra patients with and without CCCA. Overall, the researchers found that 13.9 percent of women with CCCA also had a history of uterine fibroids compared to only 3.3 percent of black women without the condition.

In absolute numbers, out of the 486,000 women who were reviewed, 16,212 had fibroids.Within that population, 447 had CCCA, of which 62 had fibroids. The findings translate to a fivefold increased risk of uterine buy chewable kamagra fibroids in women with CCCA, compared to age, sex and race matched controls. Aguh cautions that their study does not suggest any cause and effect relationship, or prove a common cause for both conditions. €œThe cause of the link between the two conditions buy chewable kamagra remains unclear,” she says.

However, the association was strong enough, she adds, to recommend that physicians and patients be made aware of it. Women with buy chewable kamagra this type of scarring alopecia should be screened not only for fibroids, but also for other disorders associated with excess fibrous tissue, Aguh says. An estimated 70 percent of white women and between 80 and 90 percent of African-American women will develop fibroids by age 50, according to the NIH, and while CCCA is likely underdiagnosed, some estimates report a prevalence of rates as high as 17 percent of black women having this condition. The other authors on this paper were Ginette buy chewable kamagra A.

Okoye, M.D. Of Johns Hopkins and Yemisi Dina of Meharry Medical College.Credit. The New England Journal of Medicine Share Fast Facts This study clears up how big an effect the mutational burden has on outcomes to immune checkpoint inhibitors buy chewable kamagra across many different cancer types. - Click to Tweet The number of mutations in a tumor’s DNA is a good predictor of whether it will respond to a class of cancer immunotherapy drugs known as checkpoint inhibitors.

- Click buy chewable kamagra to Tweet The “mutational burden,” or the number of mutations present in a tumor’s DNA, is a good predictor of whether that cancer type will respond to a class of cancer immunotherapy drugs known as checkpoint inhibitors, a new study led by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers shows. The finding, published in the Dec. 21 New England Journal of Medicine, could be used to guide future clinical trials for these drugs buy chewable kamagra. Checkpoint inhibitors are a relatively new class of drug that helps the immune system recognize cancer by interfering with mechanisms cancer cells use to hide from immune cells.

As a result, the drugs cause the immune system to fight cancer in the same way that it would fight an . These medicines have had remarkable success in treating some types of cancers that historically have had poor prognoses, such as advanced melanoma and lung buy chewable kamagra cancer. However, these therapies have had little effect on other deadly cancer types, such as pancreatic cancer and glioblastoma. The mutational burden of certain tumor buy chewable kamagra types has previously been proposed as an explanation for why certain cancers respond better than others to immune checkpoint inhibitors says study leader Mark Yarchoan, M.D., chief medical oncology fellow.

Work by Dung Le, M.D., associate professor of oncology, and other researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and its Bloomberg~Kimmel Cancer Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy showed that colon cancers that carry a high number of mutations are more likely to respond to checkpoint inhibitors than those that have fewer mutations. However, exactly how big an effect the mutational buy chewable kamagra burden has on outcomes to immune checkpoint inhibitors across many different cancer types was unclear. To investigate this question, Yarchoan and colleagues Alexander Hopkins, Ph.D., research fellow, and Elizabeth Jaffee, M.D., co-director of the Skip Viragh Center for Pancreas Cancer Clinical Research and Patient Care and associate director of the Bloomberg~Kimmel Institute, combed the medical literature for the results of clinical trials using checkpoint inhibitors on various different types of cancer. They combined these findings with data on the mutational burden of thousands buy chewable kamagra of tumor samples from patients with different tumor types.

Analyzing 27 different cancer types for which both pieces of information were available, the researchers found a strong correlation. The higher a cancer type’s mutational burden tends to be, the more likely it is to respond to checkpoint inhibitors. More than half of the differences in how well cancers responded to immune checkpoint inhibitors could be explained by the mutational burden buy chewable kamagra of that cancer. €œThe idea that a tumor type with more mutations might be easier to treat than one with fewer sounds a little counterintuitive.

It’s one buy chewable kamagra of those things that doesn’t sound right when you hear it,” says Hopkins. €œBut with immunotherapy, the more mutations you have, the more chances the immune system has to recognize the tumor.” Although this finding held true for the vast majority of cancer types they studied, there were some outliers in their analysis, says Yarchoan. For example, Merkel cell cancer, a rare and highly aggressive skin cancer, buy chewable kamagra tends to have a moderate number of mutations yet responds extremely well to checkpoint inhibitors. However, he explains, this cancer type is often caused by a kamagra, which seems to encourage a strong immune response despite the cancer’s lower mutational burden.

In contrast, the most common type of colorectal cancer has moderate mutational burden, yet responds poorly to checkpoint inhibitors for reasons that are still unclear. Yarchoan notes that these findings could help buy chewable kamagra guide clinical trials to test checkpoint inhibitors on cancer types for which these drugs haven’t yet been tried. Future studies might also focus on finding ways to prompt cancers with low mutational burdens to behave like those with higher mutational burdens so that they will respond better to these therapies. He and his colleagues plan to extend this line of research by investigating whether mutational buy chewable kamagra burden might be a good predictor of whether cancers in individual patients might respond well to this class of immunotherapy drugs.

€œThe end goal is precision medicine—moving beyond what’s true for big groups of patients to see whether we can use this information to help any given patient,” he says. Yarchoan receives funding from the Norman & buy chewable kamagra. Ruth Rales Foundation and the Conquer Cancer Foundation. Through a licensing agreement with Aduro Biotech, Jaffee has the potential to receive royalties in the future..